Reflexes are generally less variable than modal action patterns.
Learning researchers note that results with humans usually parallel those with animals.
Learning always involves the acquisition of new behaviors.
It is sometimes difficult to say whether an event is behavior or physiology.
If a CS is presented several times alone, and is then repeatedly paired with a US, conditioning proceeds more rapidly than if the CS had never been presented alone.
Modal action patterns are induced by events called ______.
The brown-headed cowbird deposits its eggs in the nests of other birds. This is most likely a ________.
modal action pattern
Natural selection is often _______.
behind the times
A reflex is ________.
a relationship between an event and a simple response
In the fox-breeding experiment, researchers selectively mated foxes that displayed ________ behavior.
In within-subject experiments, each subject's performance is compared with its performance during a _______.
Using an ABA research design is rather like using a ______.
Experiments done in natural settings are called _______.
A _________ explanation is one in which the evidence for the explanation of an event is the event itself.
Your text defines behavior as anything an organism does that can be ________.
Experimental research on behavior is often said to be artificial. To compensate for this problem, researchers do ________ .
One problem with computer simulations as a substitute for animal research is that ___________.
no one knows what behavior to program until the research has been done
Of the following, the one that does not belong with the others is _______: latent inhibition, overshadowing, blocking, higher-order conditioning
Each time a buzzer sounds, a puff of air makes a rabbit blink. Soon the rabbit blinks when it hears the buzzer. George believes that this means the buzzer takes the place of the air puff. George is an advocate of ______.
stimulus substitution theory
If, following conditioning, a CS is repeatedly presented without the US, the procedure is called ______.
The author of your text uses the terms unconditional reflex and conditional reflex, but he notes that most authors use the terms _______ and _______ reflexes.
unconditioned and conditioned
The experiment in which a dog learned to salivate at the sight of a black square after it had been paired with a CS for salivating is an example of _________ conditioning.
In general, the more intense a US, the __________.
faster conditioning proceeds
Recent research suggests that poor conditioning in elderly people may signal the early stages of ________.
Blue jays usually do not eat Monarch butterflies. This is an example of a/an __________.
conditioned taste aversion
Senatorial candidate Smith's popularity increased dramatically after he was seen on television shaking hands with a very popular public figure. This is probably an example of __________.
In treating Peter's fear of rabbits, Jones used a procedure called __________.
The CS and US in the Little Albert experiment were a __________.
rat and loud sound
Pavlov found that when he paired painful stimuli with food, the dog came to show no distress at the painful stimuli. This experiment may help explain __________ behavior in humans.
Negative reinforcement increases the strength of a behavior.
To say that a reinforcer increases the strength of a behavior means only that it has certain measurable effects on the behavior.
Chaining is a useful procedure for shaping behavior in laboratory animals, but it does not appear to be important in wildlife.
In operant learning, the word contingency usually refers to the degree of correlation between a behavior and a consequence.
Abnormal behavior often persists despite aversive consequences because it also produces reinforcing consequences.
Although important, the matching law is restricted to a narrow range of species, responses, reinforcers, and reinforcement schedules.
E. L. Thorndike's studies of learning started as an attempt to understand _______.
Reinforcement occurs when ______.
a behavior produces a consequence and as a result the behavior increases
Charles Catania identified three characteristics that define reinforcement. These include all of the following except ______: a behavior must have a consequence, the consequence of the behavior must be positive, a behavior must increase in strength, the increase in strength must be the result of the behavior's consequence
the consequence of the behavior must be positive
The number of operant procedures indicated in the contingency square is ______.
Shaping is the reinforcement of successive _______.
approximations of a desired behavior
Money is a good example of a _______ reinforcer.
Farmer Gable had a problem with motorcyclists riding across his meadow land, tearing up sod and frightening his cattle. He installed barbed wire fencing in the area and no longer had a problem. Gable's approach is best described as an example of _______.
The chief problem with extinction as a way of reducing the frequency of potentially harmful behavior is that _________.
it is slow
Delaying delivery of a punisher is most likely to ___________.
reduce its effectiveness
Punishers are defined by __________.
their effects on behavior
Self awareness means ______.
observation of our behavior
Insightful problem solving is best viewed as an example of ______.
Brad Alford's study of the man who thought he was followed by a witch is an example of ______.
an ABA design experiment
The story of Ulysses and the Sirens illustrates the self-control technique known as ______.physical restraint
Lying is probably often the result of ______.
Each of the following is a self-control technique except ______: deprivation, distancing, distraction, distortion
The self-control technique of counting the number of times a behavior occurs is called _____.
Herbert Quay found evidence that the topics discussed by ______ may be influenced by reinforcement.
Studies of learned helplessness use the ______ procedure.
George trains a pigeon to peck a disk by reinforcing each disk peck. Once the response is learned, George begins to cut back on the reinforcers. At first he reinforces every other response, then every third response, every fifth response, every tenth response, and so on. George is using a procedure called _________.
stretching the ratio
Shirley trains a rat to press a lever and then reinforces lever presses on an FR 10 schedule when a red light is on, and an FI 10" schedule when a green light is on. In this case, lever pressing is on a _________.
Studies of choice involve _________.
A pigeon is confronted with two disks, one green, the other red. The bird receives food on a VI 20" schedule when it pecks the green disk, and on a VI 10" schedule when it pecks the red one. The principle that allows you to predict the behavior of the pigeon is called the __________.
The schedule that is likely to produce a cumulative record with scallops is the _________.
The Herbert and Harsh study found that cats that had observed a model perform 30 times did better than those that had observed a model perform 15 times.
If an observer watches a well-trained model perform a response, the procedure is not really observational learning.
Vicarious learning leads inevitably to imitation.
The effects of reinforcement generalize, but the effects of extinction and punishment do not.
Herrnstein and others trained pigeons to respond to images of people. The researchers did this by pinpointing a single defining feature (such as hair) on which the birds could discriminate humans from other objects.
The degree of confidence a person has in a recollection is an excellent measure of its accuracy.
The first studies of vicarious learning ______.
failed to find evidence of vicarious learning in animals
Learning is a change in behavior due to experience. In vicarious learning, the experience consists of ______.
observing a model
The Sherry and Galef experiment with milk bottles suggests that ______.
chickadees can learn through observation
Whether children imitate an aggressive model depends largely on ______.
whether the model's behavior is reinforced or punished
Jill is an impressionable 17-year-old college freshman with average academic skills. She lives in the college dorms with two roommates. One of them, Martha, is bright, attractive, popular, rich, and a local celebrity because of her singing
she seldom studies. Jill's other roommate, Ann, is also bright, but has only a few friends, wears inexpensive clothes, and plays the tuba poorly
The tendency to imitate modeled behavior even when doing so is not reinforced is called ______.
Bill conducts an experiment in which he pairs the word psychologist with words such as nasty, evil, and corrupt. Later Bill asks his subjects to give their opinion of various professions by rating them on a scale from very positive to very negative. Of the following professions, _______ will probably receive the lowest rating.
Judy gives a monkey a choice between a sphere and various other three-dimensional shapes. Each time the animal selects the sphere, it receives a grape
if it selects the other object, it receives nothing. Judy is engaged in ______.
Frederick believes that discrimination training produces inhibitory as well as excitatory gradients of generalization. Frederick is most likely an advocate of the theory of generalization and discrimination proposed by ______.
According to your text, mental rotation data are best viewed as evidence of ______.
In a classic study, Guttman and Kalish trained pigeons to peck a disk of a particular color, and then gave them the opportunity to peck ________.
disks of various colors
In _____, the task is to select from two or more alternatives the stimulus that matches a sample.
matching to sample
In _______ discrimination training, the S+ and S- are presented at the same time.
When a behavior reliably occurs in the presence of an S+ but not in the presence of an S-, we can say the behavior is ______.
under stimulus control
Forgetting is the deterioration of ____________ .
The Chase and Simon study comparing chess masters and ordinary players showed that when chess pieces were arranged in random order, ____________ .
chess masters and ordinary players forgot about the same amount
In _________ learning, two stimuli, A and B, are presented, and the task is then to recall B whenpresented with A.
While walking in the woods, Larry happens to stumble across a nest of turkey eggs just as they are hatching. Larry watches the chicks as they emerge from their eggs and begin walking about. As he leaves the nest area, Larry finds the young birds are determined to go with him. Larry's new friends are victims of _______.
John has difficulty training a raccoon to pick up coins and put them in a bank. It is most likely that _________.
the raccoon was contraprepared to learn this task
Efforts to teach chimpanzees to talk probably failed because _________.
chimps lack the biological structures for speech
Learning is of vital importance because so many problems that face society involve _________.
Substances that damage the nervous system are called _________.
Allen and Beatrice Gardner taught a chimpanzee to _________.
use sign language
In their study of conditioning, Garcia and Koelling paired water with radiation. They found that the rats later avoided _________.