Chemistry of A&P

  1. What is Electronegativity?
    The attractive force between two oppositely charged atoms and is the force with which an atom's nucleus attracts its electrons.
  2. What is a Hydrogen bond?
    A non-covalent molecular interaction resulting in an electrostatic bond formed between a positive H from one molecule and a negatively charged O or N from a neighboring molecule. Is responsible for water's lattice structure
  3. Metabolis is:
    The capture, storage and release of energy.
  4. Give and example of a Synthesis Reaction
    N + 3H => NH3
  5. What is this an example of?
    N+ 3H => NH3
  6. Give an example of Decomposition
    CH4 => C + 4H
  7. CH4 => C + 4H is an example of which reaction?
  8. Give an example of an exchange reaction
    HCl + NaOH => NaCl + H2O
  9. HCl + NaOH => NaCl + H2O is an example of
    Exchange reactions
  10. Example of Reversible Reaction
    H2O + CO2 <=> H2CO3
  11. What do enzymes do?
    Reduce energy of activation without being permanently changed or used up
  12. Role of Water in Biological Processes:
    provides a fluid environment that allows molecular mobility
  13. Water's unusual properties
    • solubility
    • reactivity
    • high heat capacity
    • lubrication
  14. Viscosity is defined as:
    the thickness of a liquid created by its molecular interaction. Creates friction and increases resistance to flow.
  15. Surface tension of water results from
    the cohesiveness of the interlocking hydrogen bond structure
  16. The high dielectric constant results from
    the dipole character of the molecule, which reduces the electrostatic forces between other charged particles
  17. Water's intracellular and extracellular solvent ability is due primarily to which two properties of water?
    • tendency to form hydrogen bonds
    • dipolar character
  18. Aliphatic molecules are
    hydrocarbon chains (typically fatty acids)
  19. An amphiphatice molecule is one that
    has a charge on one side and no charge on the other side
  20. Micelles
    the polar heads of the phospholipid molecules are surrounded by water.
  21. Amphiphatic molecules make up
    micelles and bilayer membranes
  22. Solution
    a solvent that has disolved a solute
  23. Molarity
    # of moles/ liter of solvent
  24. molality
    number of moles/ kg of solvent
  25. Normality
    gram equivalent of solute/ liter of solvent
  26. Definition of an acid
    a substance that dissociates into one or more Hydrogen ions (H+) and one or more anions. Proton donor
  27. Definition of a base
    A substance that dissociates into one or more OH- ions and one or more cations. proton acceptor
  28. Strong acids and Strong bases react to produce
    Water and Salt
  29. Water and Salt are the products of a reaction between
    a strong acid and a strong base
  30. [HA] <=> [H+] [A-]
    What happens if an acid stronger than HA is added to the solution? What happens if a base is added to the solution?
    • the equilibrium is shifted to the left in favor of association
    • the equilibrium is shifted to the right in favor of dissociation and the formation of H+.
  31. Keq=
    [concentration of the products]/[concentration of the reactants]
  32. [concentration of the products]/[concentration of the reactants]
    formula for K equilibrium constant
  33. Keq of water =
    1.8 x 10-16
  34. pH represents:
    the amount of free H+ ions present in solution
  35. pK represents
    the amount of ionization product at equilibrium
  36. Hendersen-Hasselbach equation
    pH= pK + log ([A-]/[HA])
  37. Why does water freeze from the top down?
    • Water freeze from top to bottom as its top layer is exposed to cold
    • air.
    • Also, water have a high heat capacity, so the temperature inside a
    • considerable depth is high.
    • The layer expose to air loose its temperature and freeze, while the inner layer remains hot.
  38. How does the lattice design of ice differ fromt hat of liquid water?
    Water's latice structure is open where as ice has a closed latice
  39. Why does ice expand?
    because of its rigid OH verctors that is created when a water molecule interacts with four other water molecules
Card Set
Chemistry of A&P
atoms, bonding, reactions, pH, water