Chap. 8

  1. Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
    Prokaryotes are simple cells that make up lower plants and animals such as blue-green algae and bacteria.

    Ekaryotes are more complex cells of higher plants and animals such as most algae, fungi, protozoa, and humans.
  2. Cell Function
    • Movement-muscle cells
    • Conductivity-nerve cells
    • Metabolic absorption-function of cells of
    •                                 kidneys and intestines
    • Secretion-glands-hormones, mucus, sweat,
    •                 saliva
    • Excretion-breakdown of nutrients, waste
    •                 expulsion
    • Respiration-take in oxygen, transform
    •                   nutrients to energy
    • Reproduction-cells enlarge, divide, and
    •                      reproduce themselves (nerve
    •                      cells can not reproduce
    •                      themselves)
  3. Tissues
    • Epithelial-lines internal and external body
    •                surfaces and protects the body
    • Muscle-has ability to contract when
    •            stimulated
    •    1.Cardiac-only in heart, capability to
    •        spontaneously contract  
    •    2.Smooth-intestines and encircling blood
    •        vessels, involuntary
    •    3.Skeletal-most abundant, movement,
    •        voluntary
    • Connective-most abundant, provides support,
    •                   connection, and insulation
    • Nerve-specialized to transmit electrical
    •            impulses
  4. Metabolism
    Building up (anabolism) and breaking down (catabolism) of biochemical substances to produce energy
  5. (a)Endocrine Glands
    (b)Exocrine Glands
    (a)ductless glands, secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system, where they travel to a target organ or tissue

    (b) secrete substances such as sweat, saliva, mucus, and digestive enzymes onto the epithelial surfaces of the body via ducts
  6. (a)Endocrine signaling
    (b)Paracrine signaling
    (a)mode of intercellular communication via hormones distributed throughout the body

    (b)(nonendocrine, nonhormonal), secretion of chemical mediators by certain cells that act only on nearby cells
  7. (a)Autocrine signaling
    (b)Synaptic signaling
    (a) cells secrete substances that may act only on themselves

    (b) cells secrete specialized chemicals (neurotransmitters) such as norepinephrine, acetylcholine, serotonin, and dopamine that transmit signal across synapses
  8. Chemical Signal forms
    Hormones and neurotransmitters
  9. Negative Feedback Loop
    body mechanisms that work to reverse, or compensate for, a pathophysiological process (or to reverse any physiological process, whether pathological or nonpathological)
  10. (a) Pathology
    (b) Pathophysiology
    • (a) study of disease and its causes
    • (b) physiology of disordered function
    •       study of how diseases alter or result from
    •        an alteration in the normal physiological
    •        processes of the human body
  11. (a) Atrophy
    (b) Hypertrophy
    (c) Dilation
    • (a) Decrease in cell size resulting from a
    •       decreased workload.
    •      May occur due to disuse, lack of
    •       stimulation, lack of nervous impulses,
    •       decreased nutrient supply, ischemia, or
    •       decrease vascular supply

    • (b) Increase in size resulting from increased
    •       workload
    •      Most commonly affects cells of the heart
    •       and kidneys
    • (c) Enlargement
    •      In reference to the heart, an abnormal
    •       enlargement resulting from pathology
  12. (a) Hyperplasia
    (b) Metaplasia
    (c) Dysplasia
    • (a) Increase in the number of cells through
    •       division (mitosis) resulting from an
    •       increased workload
    •      Epithileal, cardiac, glandular, and
    •       epidermal are capable of hyperplasia

    • (b) Replacement of one type of cell by
    •       another type of cell that is not normal for
    •       that tissue

    • (c) Change in cell size, shape or appearance
    •       caused by an external stressor
    •      Usually due to a chronic inflammation
    •       from irritation
  13. Forms of Cellular Injury
    • Hypoxia
    • Chemicals
    • Infectious agents
    • Inflammatory reactions
    • Physical agents
    • Nutritional factors
    • Genetic factors
  14. (a) Hypoxia
    (b) Ischemia
    (c) Infarction
    • (a) Oxygen deficiency
    •      Most common cause of cellular injury

    • (b) Blockage or reduction of the delivery of
    •       oxygenated blood to the cells

    • (c) Irreversible damage, cellular and tissue
    •       death
  15. Degree of pathogen damage
    • Depends on:
    •      1.Numbers
    •      2.Virulence (pathogenicity) depends on
    •          -ability to invade and destroy cell
    •          -ability to produce toxins
    •          -ability to produce hypersensitivity
    •            (allergic) reactions
    •      3.Body's ability to contain or destroy it
  16. (a) Anabolism
    (b) Catabolism
    (a) constructive or "building up" phase of metabolism in which cells convert nonliving substances into living cytoplasm

    (b) destructive or "breaking down" phase of metabolism in which cells break down complex substances into smaller substances with release of energy
  17. (a) Cellular swelling
    (b) Fatty change
    (a) swelling of a cell caused by injury to or change in permeability of the cell membrane with resulting inability to maintain stable intra- and extracellular fluid and electrolyte levels.

    • (b) a result of cellular injury and swelling in which lipids (fat vesicles) invade the area of injury; occurs most commonly in the liver.
    • -sign of impending cellular destruction
  18. Systemic Signs of Cellular Injury
    • General feeling of fatigue
    • Malaise
    • Altered apetite
    • Fever ass. w/inflammatory response
    • Increased heart rate ass. w/fever
    • Pain
    • High leukocyte (wbc) count
  19. Apoptosis
    • -Response in which an injured cell releases
    •   enzymes that engulf and destroy itself; one
    •   way the body rids itself of damaged and 
    •   dead cells
    • -Cells shrink
    • -Has specificity, single scattered cells
  20. Necrosis
    • -cell death; a pathological cell change
    • -4 types:
    •      -Coagulative
    •      -Liquefactive
    •      -Caseous
    •      -Fatty
    • -Gangrenous necrosis refers to tissue death
    •   over a wide area
    • -Cells swell and rupture
    • -Lacks specificity, will destroy damaged and
    •   surrounding cells
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Chap. 8
Chap. 8 Book 1 notecards