BDSC 8 (Ballast Test)

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  1. chairs
    small wire supports that help to keep rebar a specified distance from the outside of the concrete and help ensure adequate concrete cover
  2. bolster
    type of chair used in broad slabs or beams
  3. float finish
    rough finish intended for outdoor surfaces and interior slabs that will become the substrate for a finish material that does not require a perfectly smooth underlayment, such as carpet or tile
  4. Type S mortar
    • should be specified for exterior applications
    • used for heavier loading on interior walls and for exterior walls at or below grade, such as foundation walls, retaining walls, pavements, walks and patios
  5. Type M or N mortar
    best for exterior applications above grade and for interior load-bearing walls
  6. Type O mortar
    • well suited for interior and protected exterior non-load-bearing partitions
    • used for light loads where freezing is not expected
  7. sedimentary rock
    • ex. limestone, brownstone, sandstone
    • formed through the action of water and wind and comprise of elements left behind from the skeletons of marine organisms
  8. igneous rock
    • ex. granite
    • deposited while molten
  9. metamorphic rock
    • either sedimentary or igneous rock that has been transformed by heat and pressure
    • ex. marble, soapstone, slate
  10. skewback angle dimension
    skewback = (span/24) (arch depth/4in)
  11. non decay resistant trees
    spruce trees
  12. decay resistant trees
    cedar, redwood, cypress
  13. reliance building, chicago
    one of the first buildings to use an all-steel frame and exploit the possibilities of the curtain-wall construction
  14. rift sawing
    • boards are cut radially from the center of the log
    • produces very straight and consistent vertical grain
    • type of cut is typically only used for sawing oak
    • very labor intensive
    • creates waste
  15. quatersawing
    • involves dividing a log into quarters and then cutting boards perpendicular to the grain
    • produces boards with straight grain running parallel to the length of the board
  16. plain sawing and flat sawing
    • boards are cut in straight lines across the grain of the log
    • grain tends to be more uneven than quatersawn or rift-sawn boards, but it is a technique that produces the curvy grain often seen on framing members
    • boards cut this way tend to cup or warp a little more than quarter or rift sawn because of curve of grain
  17. flitch beam
    • combines wood and steel into one member with load-carrying capacity far exceedign that of wood along
    • aka sandwich beams
  18. beams definition
    at least 5in wide with a depth of 2in greater than their width
  19. boards
    pieces of wood smaller than 2in thick and 2in wide
  20. dimensional lumber
    2in to 4in thick and 2in or more wide
  21. posts and timbers
    at least 5in wide by at least 5in deep, but not more than 2in deeper than the width
  22. auguste perret
    • french architect practicing in the early 1900s, designed most of his buildings using a revolutionary new material: reinforced concrete
    • famous for Notre Dame du Raincy in Paris (1922)
  23. steel reinforcing bars - how to splice
    overlapping the 2 bars a specified distance, sometimes expressed in terms of a number of bar widths and diameters
  24. contact splices
    where the bars are wired together
  25. non-contact splices
    where the bars are laid in parallel and overlapped the specified distance but are not fastened to one another
  26. ACQ
    • alkaline copper quat
    • wood preservative that contains up to 96% copper
    • banned from residential use by EPA because of concern about its arsenic content
  27. triglyphs and metopes
    parts of the frieze in the doric order
  28. PM
    • polymer-modified, mineral-based system
    • high impact resistance and provide good insulation
    • consist of a base and finish coat of synthetic stucco applied over XPS, or extruded polystyrene, insulation board
  29. PB
    • polymer-based
    • systems are made up of a very thin base coat of portland cement and polymer over fiberglass mesh with a thin finish coat of polymer-based synthetic stucco over EPS, or expanded polystyrene, insulation board
    • lighter than PM systems
  30. MB
    • mineral-based, systems are basically conventional three-coat portland cement stucco systems
    • very impact resistant, but since stucco is not applied over an insulation board, system does not offer the insulation of PB and PM systems
  31. heavy timber chamfer
    to increase fire resistance
  32. radon levels
    EPA determined that no action is required if level of radon is less than 4 pCi/L
  33. batter boards
    • temporary supports erected to hold wires or strings that indicate the excavation line for a building site
    • surveying
  34. grade stakes
    used to indicate how much cut or fill is required at a specific location to reach finish grade
  35. transit
    • surveying tool used to determine the elevations of points on a site
    • typ mounted on a tripod
    • laser level with a sight that shoots elevations using a prism
  36. most common type of roof sheathing
    • C-D Exterior
    • aka CDX
  37. plywood finishes
    • N (natural finish, free of defects)
    • A (smooth and paintable)
    • B (solid-surface veneer)
    • C plugged (splits limited to 1/8" width and knot/borer holes limited to 1/4" by 1/2")
    • C (knotholes permitted to 1". limited splits permitted. min grade for exterior plywood)
    • D (knots/knotholes to 3" permitted. limited splited permitted)
  38. what does 1:2:5 ratio mean?
    1 part cement; 2 parts fine aggregate (sand); 5 parts coarse aggregate
  39. which type mortar has highest compressive strength
    type M mortar; min average 28-day compressive strength of 2500psi
  40. which type mortar has the lowest compressive strength?
    type O: compressive strength of 350psi
  41. Type N mortar
    commonly used for exterior walls and interior walls under normal loads
  42. Type S and M mortar
    used when high strength mortar is required for heavy loads or for cases where the mortar will be exposed to severe, saturated freezing
  43. collar joint
    vertical joint between masonry withes
  44. reglets
    horizontal grooves cast into concrete that allow a piece of flashing to be slipped inside and then carried accross the airspace and through the brick for proper drainage and moisture control
  45. tuck pointing
    • process used to repair failing mortar joints
    • involves removing the deteriorated mortar toa¬† certain depth and inserting new, compatible mortar into the space, then stricking it with new, water-resistant edge treatement
  46. what percentage does structural steel typically have?
    from 0.20% to 0.50%
  47. welding
    joining 2 metals by heating them above their melting points
  48. soldering
    joining 2 metals using lead based or tin based alloys as filler metals that melt below 500F
  49. brazing
    joining 2 metals with heat and a filler metal with a melting point above 800F
  50. dimension lumber
    • nominal thickness between 2in and 5in
    • nominal width of 2in or greater
  51. boards
    pieces of lumber less than 2in thick and 2in or more in width
  52. timber
    pieces of lumber 5in or more in thickness and 5in or more in width
  53. yard lumber
    general term for softwood lumber used for structural purposes without regard for specific sizes
  54. fire-cut joist
    • ends cut at an angle such that the longer end rests on a masonry bearing wall and the shorter end is flush with the inside face of the wall
    • required in masonry walls to prevent the masonry form being pushed up and out of the wood member should collapse during a fire
  55. saddle hangers
    • pieces of performed metal, designed to fit over a beam, that provide support for joists framed perpendicularly to the beam
    • allows the joists to be installed with their top edges flush with the top edges of the beams
    • avoids requirement that the joists be placed over the beams, which would increase the total depth required for floor structure
  56. shear plates
    used for structures that must be disassembled
  57. allowable stress ratings for lumber are based primarily on
    • size groups
    • species
    • types of defects
  58. work triangle in a kitchen
    3 sides should not add up more than 26ft
  59. normal slope asphalt or composition roof
  60. counter flashing
    covers the base flashing to extend from the wall over the base flashing and to cover any expansion joint that may occur at this point
  61. slip joint
    used to prevent the weight of a structure above from bearing on the framing or the glazing
  62. what part of the door is the lockset mounted?
    on the stile
  63. solvent
    • part of the vehicle that dries or evaporates
    • one of two parts of the vehicle
  64. binder
    • forms final coating
    • one of two parts of the vehicle
  65. weight sizes on elevators
    • 2000lbm (small apartments)
    • 6000lbm (freight)
    • 4000lbm (large office buildings)
    • 3000lbm (med sized buildings)
  66. built up roofing
    • top layer should be protected from ultraviolet degradation
    • proper installation is more imporatant than the number of plies
    • roof insulation can be placed either above or below the roofing
  67. firestops
    • materials used to seal penetrations through fire walls or smoke barriers
    • always noncombustible and may be factory built or constructed in the field
  68. davis-bacon act
    • requires that all workers on US government projects over $2,000 be paid at prevailing wage rates
    • 1931
  69. choosing elevator speed formula
    • S= 1.6r +350ft
    • S=spee
    • r=total height
  70. mortise lock
    most secure type of lock
  71. order to remove formwork
    • 1) walls and beams (1 day)
    • 2) columns (4 days)
    • 3) slab forms (7 days or more)
    • 4) beams (min 14 days)
  72. STC ratings (sound transmission class)
    • 25:Normal speech can be understood quite easily and distinctly through wall
    • 30: Loud speech can be understood fairly well, normal speech heard but not understood
    • 35: Loud speech audible but not intelligible
    • 40: Onset of "privacy"
    • 42: Loud speech audible as a murmur45Loud speech not audible; 90% of statistical population not annoyed
    • 50: Very loud sounds such as musical instruments or a stereo can be faintly heard; 99% of population not annoyed.
    • 60:+Superior soundproofing; most sounds inaudible
  73. NRC (noise reduction coefficent)
    NRC of 0 indicates perfect reflection; an NRC of 1 indicates perfect absorption
Card Set
BDSC 8 (Ballast Test)
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