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  1. _________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported by the bloodstream to reach target cells.
  2. The chemical messengers of the nervous system are called _______, and the chemical messengers of the endocrine system are called_______.
    neurotransmitters and hormones
  3. ________hormones are relatively small molecules that are structurally similar to amino acids. This group includes E, NE, TH, and Melatonin.
    Amino Acid Derivatives
  4. __________hormones consist of chains of amino acids. These molecules range from short proteins such as GH and Prolactin to short amino acid chains such as ADH and oxytocin.
    Peptide hormones
  5. ________are lipids that are derived from cholesterol.
    Steroid Hormones
  6. Hormones alter cellular operations by changing the identities, activities, locations, and quantities of important enzymes and structural proteins in various _______.
    target cells
  7. A target cell's sensitivity is determined by the presence or absence of a specific ______ with which a hormone interacts.
  8. ________are located on either on the cell membrane or inside the cell.
    Hormone receptors
  9. _______, ________, and ______ are not lipid soluble, meaning they cannot diffuse through a cell membrane.
    Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and peptide hormones
  10. _________, which are lipid soluble, diffuse across the cell membrane and bind to receptor proteins on the inner surface of the cell membrane.
  11. ________is involved in the link between the first and second messenger.
    G Protein
  12. _______functions as an enzyme activator or inhibitor. Its net result changes the cell's metabolic activities,
    Second Messenger
  13. What is the most important second messenger?
  14. c-AMP appearance depends on an activated G protein, which activates an enzyme called?
    Adenylate Cyclase
  15. Adenylate Cyclase converts _____ to a ring-shaped molecule of c-AMP.
  16. ______ diffuse rapidly through the lipid layer of the cell membrane and bind to receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus. The resulting ____then activates or inactivates specific genes in the nucleus.
    Steroid Hormones and hormone-receptor complex
  17. When calcium levels in the blood decline, _________hormone is released?
    parathyroid hormone
  18. When calcium in the blood rise, _____ is released.
  19. Endocrine activity is controlled by?
    Negative Feedback
  20. ______provides the highest level of endocrine control and is an important link between the endocrine and nervous system.
  21. The hypothalamus secrets_____, which are special hormones that control the activity of endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
    regulatory hormones
  22. What are the two classes of regulatory hormones?
    Releasing and inhibiting hormones
  23. The hypothalamus acts as an endocrine organ by synthesizing what two hormones?
    ADH and oxytocin
  24. ADH and oxytocin are released into circulation at the ______.
    Posterior pituitary gland
  25. When the sympathetic division is activated, the _____release hormones into the bloodstream.
    Adrenal medullae
  26. The ______is a small, oval gland nestled within the sella turcica, which is a depression in the sphenoid bone of the skull.
    Pituitary gland
  27. The pituitary gland hangs beneath the hypothalamus, connected to a slender stalk called?
  28. The _______produces seven hormones.
    Anterior pituitary gland
Card Set
Endocrine System
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