Geography definitions

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  1. Ecozone
    An ecological classification system developed for use by environment Canada and statistics Canada
  2. Ecosystem
    A group of living organisms that, along with their environment, form a self-regulating system through which energy and materials are transferred.
  3. Multifactor Region
    A region with a number of characteristics that make it unique.
  4. Plate Tectonics
    A theory that explains the global distribution of geological phenomena such as seismicity, volcanism, continental drift, and mountain building in terms of the formation, destruction, movement, and interaction of the earth's lithospheric plates.
  5. Continental Drift
    Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other by appearing to drift across the ocean bed. The speculation that continents might have 'drifted' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596.
  6. Convection Currents
    Convection is the transfer of heat through a fluid by the physical movement of the fluid itself, and convection currents are those movements.
  7. Lithosphere
    Rock layer of the Earth's crust
  8. Subduction/Convergence
    Area of crust where one plate slides beneath another, creating volcanoes in the Earth's surface.
  9. Sea floor spreading/Divergent translation
    The creation of new oceanic basaltic crust at divergent plate boundaries called mid-ocean ridges. Material from the asthenosphere becomes molten as convection currents cause it to rise toward the thin upraised boundary between plates there. /as it solidifies, it becomes new crust. Because new oceanic crust is being created there, older oceanic crust is being destroyed at trenches, where the colder, more dense oceanic crust is being drawn into the asthenosphere, completing the roughly 200 million year oceanic crust recycling period.
  10. Magma
    Molten rock beneath the Earth's surface
  11. Igneous Rock
    solidified molten rock
  12. Sedimentary Rock
    Types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water
  13. Metamorphic Rock
    Rock altered by pressure and heat.
  14. Erosion
    The process of eroding or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents.
  15. Weathering
    Wear away or change the appearance or texture (of something) by long exposure to the atmosphere. The rocks can be worn away or altered by such a process.
  16. Deposition
    The process where materials like mud, sand, pebbles and silt are transported by the river, glaciers, wind ect... and are eventually dropped.
  17. Climate
    The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.
  18. Weather
    The state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, cloudiness, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.
  19. Orographic/Relief precipitation
    Winds carrying moisture are forced up the side of the mountain. As they move up the mountain side they cool down and the moisture then condenses into clouds. Rains occur. This is the windward side of the mountain (you find lush vegetation). The now dry winds continue over the mountain where very little rain will occur as the wind has lost its moisture and is dry. This is the leeward side of the mountain and has scrub grasses, small shrubs and tends to be a semi-desert.
  20. cyclonic precipitation
    cyclonic precipitation results when the leading edge of the warm air mass meets a cool air mass. the warm air mass rises above the cool air mass. it cools adiabatically. the moisture condenses, clouds are formed, precipitation results.
  21. Convectional Precipitation
    The sun's heat vaporizes the water and draws it from earth's surfaceinto the atmosphere. As the vapor cools, it falls back to the earthas rains, snow and other precipitation
  22. Prevailing Winds
    Winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.
  23. Rain Shadow
    a dry area on the lee back side of a mountainous area. The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems casting a "shadow" of dryness behind them.  The incoming warm and moist air is "pulled" by the prevailing winds towards the top of the mountains where it condenses and precipitates before it crosses the top. The air, without much moisture left, advances behind the mountains creating a drier side called "rain shadow."
  24. Humus
    A brown or black organic substance consisting of partially or wholly decayed vegetable or animal matter that provides nutrients for plants and increases the ability of soil to retain water.
  25. Coniferous
    Trees with cones and needles
  26. Deciduous
    Trees with leaves that they lose in the fall and that change coulour season-to-season
  27. Demography
    The study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics.
  28. Population Density
    The size of the population within a particular unit of space.
  29. Population Distribution
    The patterns of where people live.
  30. Archipelago
    a chain, cluster or collection of islands
  31. Ecumene
    The inhabited (or inhabitable) area of the world.
Card Set
Geography definitions
Grade Nine geo definitions
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