Herbal Medicine 9

  1.  Crataegus (hawthorn) - as
    well as reducing high blood
    pressure this herb has a
    trophic effect on the heart
     This is important because
    left ventricular heart failure
    is often caused by
    prolonged hypertension
  2.  The main action of Crataegus oxyacantha (Hawthorn leaves
    • and berries) is as a trophorestorative to the heart
    •  Experience has shown that combining the leaves and the
    • berries may give better results in ischaemic heart disease
    • than either part used separately
  3.  Hawthorn owes its action to a composite of constituents
    which appear to potentiate each other. There are two main
    groups of constituents:
     (i) Flavonoids such as quercetin, hyperoside, vitexin, and
     (ii) Oligomeric pro-cyanidins (OPC's), which consist of
    catechin units.
  4.  A monograph compiled for the German Federal Ministry of
    • Health lists the following actions for Hawthorn
    •  increases muscle contraction
    •  increases rate of contraction
    •  affects conductivity of nerve fibre
    •  decreases response of tissue to stimuli
    •  Increases in coronary and myocardial circulation are also
    • noted
  5. Crataegus oxyacantha
     Crataegus improves coronary circulation, improving blood
    supply to the myocardium
     It improves the activity and nutrition of heart muscle cells and
    as such works best used over a long period of time
     Crataegus increases peripheral blood flow and decreases
    peripheral resistance mainly by vasodilation to muscles
    • In hypertensive patients it helps reduce blood pressure
    •  It has been found to be of benefit in cases of cardiac
    • arrhythmia's
    •  particularly for extrasystoles of various origin
    •  also for paroxysmal tachycardia and other tachycardia
    • attacks
    •  In all these cases it works particularly well in elderly
    • patients with senile hearts, has been called the drug to
    • care for the ageing heart
  6. Crataegus therefore has the following uses:
     Angina pectoris
     Ageing heart
     Intermittent claudication
    • Coleus forskohlii - can have
    • a pronounced lowering
    • effect on high blood
    • pressure
    •  Only varieties containing
    • forskolin should be used
    •  Coleus also has
    • pronounced antiplatelet
    • activity, which may be
    • desirable in some cases
  7. Coleus lowers normal or elevated blood pressure in different
    animal species by relaxing arteriolar smooth muscle
     Despite a reduction in blood pressure, Coleus increased
    cerebral blood flow in rabbits, an effect thought to be due to
    vasodilation and increased cardiac output
    • Coleus has a positive inotropic action on heart muscle
    • (increases the force of contraction)
    •  Coleus is a potent inhibitor of human platelet aggregation
    •  Coleus acts by increasing cAMP in the cell, and therefore
    • acts synergistically with Crataegus which decreases cAMP
    • breakdown through inhibition of phosphodiesterase
  8. Valeriana (valerian) -
    whether this herb acts as a
    peripheral or central
    vasodilator or if the activity
    is due to a general calming
    effect on the nervous
    system is not known
    • Mexican Valerian is used for its sedative effect and for its
    • ability to treat the stress/anxiety component of hypertension
    •  Valerian is a very safe and gentle herbal nervine
  9. Olea europaea (olive leaves) - has been shown to
    lower high blood pressure in clinical trials provided
    the dose is sufficiently high
     Olcuropeoside a component present in olive leaf
    extract may be responsible for the vasodilator effect
    on the smooth muscle layer of coronary arteries
  10.  Viburnum opulus (cramp
    • bark) - thought to relax
    • smooth muscle and has
    • been used to augment
    • antihypertensive
    • prescriptions as a
    • vasorelaxant.
  11. Achillea millefolium
    (yarrow) - is used by some
    herbalists to specifically
    lower an elevated diastolic
    blood pressure
     It is considered to be a
    specific for thrombotic
    conditions associated with
    high blood pressure
    • Taraxacum officinale
    • (dandelion leaves) - has
    • diuretic activity and high
    • levels of potassium and can
    • be useful especially for the
    • treatment of elevated
    • systolic pressure in the
    • elderly.
  12. Tilia europa (Lime
    Flowers)  Being a peripheral
    vasodilator, Lime
    Flowers can play a role
    in lowering blood
    • Viscum Alba (Mistletoe) is a relaxing nervine which acts
    • directly on the vagus nerve to reduce heart rate whilst
    • strengthening the wall of the peripheral capillaries and so
    • helps to reduce blood pressure and ease arteriosclerosis
    •  Where there is nervous quickening of the heart (nervous
    • tachycardia) it may he very helpful
    •  Headache due to high blood pressure can be relieved by it
  13. Salvia miltiorrhiza
     Dan Shen is a circulatory tonic, hypotensive, anticoagulant, and sedative.
     It is also used for coronary heart disease, the acute stage of arthritis and
     Dan Shen might dilate the blood vessels
     increase portal and liver blood flow
     prevent intramicrovascular coagulation and as a result relieve
    ischaemia of the tissues, enrich nutrition of cells and accelerate repair
    of lesions.
    • Turmeric (Curcuma longer)
    • Actions include
    •  Antiinflammatory
    •  Antiplatelet
    •  Antioxidant
    •  Hypolipidemic
    •  Choleretic
    •  Antimicrobial
    •  Carminative
    •  Depurative
  14. Commiphora mukul (guggul)
    A well-known Ayurvedic herb for the treatment of arthritis
    which has recently come into prominence as an effective
    treatment for high blood cholesterol
    Guggul as a treatment for obesity and
    associated lipid disorders.
    Do not give during breast-feeding.
    • Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
    •  Stimulates hepatorenal function
    •  stimulates bile flow from the liver
    •  reduces blood lipids
    •  inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis
    •  protects liver cells against toxins from antioxidative processes
    •  promotes regeneration of liver cells
    •  prevents cholestasis
    •  reduces nausea of various origins.
  15. Globe artichoke
     Cynara extract in vitro inhibited cholesterol
    synthesis, but unlike modern cholesterol drugs (the
    HMG-CoA reducatase inhibitors), might not result in
    the accumulation of potentially undesirable
    intermediate metabolites
    •  Saponin-containing herbs are believed to sequester
    • cholesterol in the digestive tract
    •  Gymnema is rich in saponins and has been found to
    • reduce cholesterol in clinical trials on diabetics
    •  Saponins from Medicago sativa (alfalfa) have also
    • been shown to lower cholesterol
  16. Mucilages
    Soluble fibre is thought to lower cholesterol by the following
    Bacterial flora in the large bowel metabolize soluble fibre to produce
    short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)
     Some of these SCFA are carried by the portal venous system to the
    liver where they influence hepatic metabolism to decrease cholesterol
    • Guar gum
    •  Ulmus (slippery elm)
    •  Althaea (marshmallow root)
    •  Plantago species (psyllium) (seeds or husks)
  17. Green tea (Camellia sinensis)
     Green tea consumption has been shown to significantly
    reduce serum cholesterol and triglycerides and increase HDL
     Green tea is the unprocessed, dried, young leaves of
    Camellia sinensis
    • Specific Herbs for CCF
    •  Terminalia arjuna
    •  Coleus forskolin
    •  Crataegus oxyacantha
    •  Astragalus membranaceus
  18. Terminalia arjuna
     Assists the nutrient supply to the heart
     this provides more energy to the heart muscle, so that the
    beat is stronger and the number of beats reduced
     Reduces total cholesterol and triglycerides and elevates
    HDL-cholesterol in rabbits receiving a high cholesterol diet
     Diuretic effects have been reported
  19.  Concluded that Terminalia was
    •  cardioprotective rather than cardiotonic
    •  hepatoprotective
    •  mild diuretic
  20. Adverse effects
     an Indian doctor reported a patient, who after consuming
    Terminalia for about four years, developed acute
    myocardial infarction
     there was no previous history of any cardiac illness except
    one episode of sinus tachycardia.
     It was suggested that cases of stable angina be treated
    with Terminalia alone with extreme caution
    • Astragalus membranaceus
    •  Astragalus traditionally was used in Chinese Herbal Medicine
    • as a tonic for building both vitality and blood
    •  Astragalus has a cardiotonic effect on isolated hearts and
    • cardiac cells
    •  A cardiotonic effect was also demonstrated in heart failure
    • patients
  21.  Astragalus saponins have a positive inotropic action on
    isolated working hearts of rats
     A hypotensive action has also been observed, which may be
    due to cAMP elevation.
Card Set
Herbal Medicine 9
session 9