AM GOV - Ch. 3

  1. ´╗┐federal system
    system of government where the national government and state governments share power, derive all authority from the people, and the powers of government are specified in a Constitution
  2. unitary system
    system of government where the local and regional governments derive all authority from a strong national government
  3. enumerated powers
    specified powers granted to Congress under Article 1, section 8 of the Constitution; these powers include taxation, coinage of money, regulation of commerce, and the authority to provide for a national defense
  4. necessary and proper clause
    the final paragraph of Article 1, section 8 of the Constitution which gives Congress the authority to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers specified in the Constitution; also called the elastic clause
  5. implied powers
    powers derived from enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause; these powers are not stated specifically but are considered to be reasonable implied through the exercise of delegated powers
  6. supremacy clause
    portion of Article 6 of the Constitution mandating that national law is supreme to all other laws passed by the states or by any other subdivision of government
  7. Tenth Amendment
    the final part of the Bill of Rights that defines the basic principle of American federalism in stating "the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people"
  8. reserve (or police) powers
    powers reserved to the states by the Tenth Amendment that lie at the foundation of a state's right to legislate for the public health and welfare of its citizens
  9. concurrent powers
    authority possessed by both the state and national governments that may be exercised concurrently as long as that power is not exclusively within the scope of national power or in conflict with national law
  10. bill of attainer
    a law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial
  11. ex post facto law
    law that makes an act punishable as a crime even if the action was legal at the time it was committed
  12. full faith and credit clause
    section of Article 4 of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state
  13. extradition clause
    part of Article 4 that requires states to extradite, or return, criminals to states where they have been convicted or are to stand trial
  14. privileges and immunities clause
    part of Article 4 guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of other states
  15. interstate compacts
    contracts between states that carry the force of law; generally now used as a tool to address multistate policy concerns
  16. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
    the Supreme Court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the supremacy clause; the broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers
  17. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
    the Supreme Court upheld broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce; the broad interpretation of the commerce clause pave the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers
  18. dual federalism
    the belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of government is the best arrangement
  19. Sixteenth Amendment
    authorized Congress to enact a national income tax
  20. Seventeenth Amendment
    made senators directly elected by the people; removed their selection from state legislatures
  21. cooperative federalism
    the interwined relationship between the national, state, and local governments that began with the New Deal
  22. categorical grant
    grants that allocated federal funds to states for a specific purpose
  23. New Federalism
    federal-state relationship proposed by the Reagan administration during the 1980s; hallmark is returning administrative powers to the state governments
  24. block grant
    broad grant with few strings attached; given to states by the federal government for general categories of activity, such as secondary education or health services
  25. unfunded mandates
    national laws that direct state or local governments to comply with federal rules or regulations (such as clean air or water standards) but contain little or no federal funding to defray the cost of meeting these requirements
  26. preemption
    a concept derived from the Constitution's supremacy clause that allows the national government to override or preempt state or local actions in certain areas
  27. sovereign immunity
    the right of a state to be free from a lawsuit unless it gives permission to the suit; all states considered sovereign under the Eleventh Amendment
Card Set
AM GOV - Ch. 3