Medical Terminology Chapter 6

  1. plasma
    a clear, straw-colored liquid that makes up 55% of the blood
  2. albumin
    protein molecule in the blood
  3. eletrolytes
    chemical structures that carry a positive or negative electrical charge - sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), and bicarbonate (HCO3)
  4. hematopoiesis
    the process by which all of the formed elements in the plasma are produced.
  5. stem cell
    extremely immature cell in the red marrow that is the precursor to all types of blood cells
  6. erythrocytes
    red blood cells (RBC) are round, somewhat flattened, red disks.  No nucleus
  7. hemoglobin
    a red, iron-containing molecule
  8. oxyhemoglobin
    hemoglobin bound to oxygen
  9. erythroblast
    a very immature red blood cell
  10. reticulocyte
    a nearly mature red blood cell
  11. erythropoietin
    a hormone that dramatically increases the speed at which erythrocytes are produced and become mature
  12. granulocyte
    leukocytes with granules in the cytoplasm - neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
  13. agranulocytes
    no granules in cytoplasm - monocytes and lymphocytes
  14. neutrophil
    granules are neutral.  Engulf and destroy bacteria.  Most common leukocyte - 40-60%
  15. eosinophil
    granules stain red.  Engulf and destroy foreign cells (allergens) and destroy parasites
  16. basophil
    granules stain dark blue.  Release histamine at the site of tissue injury, release heparin to limit the size of a forming blood clot.  Least common at 0.5-1%
  17. lymphocyte
    few or no granules.  Engulf and destroy viruses and produce antibodies.  20-40%
  18. monocyte
    few or no granules.  Engulf and destroy micro-organism, cancerous cells, dead leukocytes, and cellular debris.  2-4%
  19. polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN
    a neutrophil
  20. bands
    a band is an immature neutrophil that has a nucleus shaped like a curved band.  AKA stab (german for band)
  21. phagocyte
    engulf and destroy bacteria - phagocytosis
  22. thrombocytes (platelet)
    different from other blood cells because it is only a cell fragment. Active during the blood clotting process.
  23. antigen
    protein molecule on the cell membrane of the erythrocyte
  24. Type A blood
    A antigen - anti-B antibodies
  25. Type B blood
    B antigen - anti-A antibodies
  26. Type AB blood
    A and B antigens - no antibodies
  27. Type O blood
    no antigens - anti A and B antibodies
  28. aggregation
    process of platelets sticking to a damaged blood vessel wall and forming clumps
  29. clotting factors
    a series of 12 substances that are released either from platelets or injured tissue or are produced by the liver
  30. coagulation
    formation of a blood clot by platelets, erythrocytes, and clotting factors
  31. fibrin
    strands formed by the activation of clotting factor.  Fibrin traps erythrocytes to for a blood clot
  32. fibrinogen
    blood clotting factor I
  33. hemostasis
    the cessation of bleeding
  34. prothrombin
    blood clotting factor II.
  35. serum
    fluid portion of the plasma that remains after the clotting factors are activated to form a blood clot
  36. thromboplastin
    blood clotting factor III
  37. lymphatic vessels
    vessels that begin as capillaries, carry lymph, continue through lymph nodes, and empty into the right lymphatic duct or the thoracic duct
  38. lymph
    fluid that flows through the lymphatic system
  39. lymph nodes
    small, encapsulated pieces of lymphoid tissue located along lymphatic vessels.
  40. lymphoid tissues
    tonsils, adenoids, and Peyers's patches
  41. thymus
    a lymphoid organ with a pink color and grainy consistency.  Active and larger during childhood, but atrophies during adulthood
  42. spleen
    a rounded lymphoid organ located in the ULQ of the abdomen. Removes old red blood cells from the blood
  43. immune response
    involves a coordinated effort between the blood and the lymphatic system to destroy microorganisms that invade the body and cancerous cells that arise within the body
  44. pathogens
    microorganisms that cause disease
  45. cytokines
    chemicals released by injured body tissues to summon leukocytes
  46. histamine
    dilates blood vessels and increases blood flow, which causes redness and also brings more leukocytes to the area
  47. interferon
    produced by macrophages that have engulfed a virus.  Stimulates cells to produce an antiviral substance that prevents a virus from entering a cell and reproducing
  48. interleukin
    stimulates B and T cell lymphocytes and activates NK cells.  Also produces the fever associated with inflammation and infection.
  49. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
    destroys endotoxins produced by certain bacteria.  It also destroys cancer cells
  50. NK cells (natural killer)
    special lymphocytes that recognize a pathogen by the antigens on its cell wall and release chemicals to destroy it.
  51. B cells
    inactive until a macrophage presents them with fragments from a pathogen, the B cell changes into a plasma cell and produces antibodies against that pathogen.  Activate helper T cells
  52. memory T cells
    created when a helper T cell is exposed to a pathogen.  Inactive until the next time that pathogen enters the body, then they remember and become cytotoxic T cells
  53. helper T cells
    stimulate the production of cytotoxic T cells.  Helper T cells also produce memory T cells
  54. cytotoxic T cells
    engulf and destroy all types of pathogens as well as body cells that have been invaded by a virus
  55. supressor T cells
    limit the extent and duration of the immune response by inhibiting B cells and cytotoxic T cells.
  56. antibodies
    if NK cells do not immediately destroy a pathogen, then antibodies coat the pathogen and mark it to be destroyed.  Also known as immunoglobulins
  57. complement proteins
    a group of nine proteins that activate each other.  Attach to the antibodies and drill holes in the pathogen's cell wall.
  58. IgA
    immunoglobulin A - antibody present in body secretions and on the surface of the skin.
  59. IgD
    immunoglobulin D - antibody present on the surface of B cells.  It stimulates the B cell to become a plasma cell
  60. IgE
    immunoglobulin E - antibody present on the surface of basophils.  It causes them to release histamine and heparin during inflammatory and allergic reactions
  61. IgG
    immunoglubulin G - antibody that is produced by plasma cells the second time a specific pathogen enters the body.
  62. IgM
    immunoglobulin M - antibody that is produced by plasma cells during the initial exposure to a pathogen.  Also reacts to incompatible blood types during a blood transfusion
Card Set
Medical Terminology Chapter 6
Hematology and Immunology