Medical Terminology Chapter 5

  1. acute coronary syndrome
    acute ischemia of the myocardium with unstable angina pectorus.
  2. angina pectoris
    mild-to-severe chest pain caused by ischemia of the myocardium
  3. cardiomegaly
    enlargement of the heart, usually due to congestive heart failure
  4. cardiomyopathy
    any disease condition of the heart muscle that includes heart enlargement and heart failure.
  5. dilated cardiomyopathy
    the left ventricle is dilated and the myocardium is so stretched that it can no longer contract
  6. idiopathic cardiomyopathy
    has an unknown cause
  7. congestive heart failure (CHF)
    the inability of the heart to pump sufficient amounts of blood
  8. myocardial infarction (MI)
    death of myocardial cells due to severe ischemia
  9. endocarditis
    inflammation and bacterial infection fo the endocardium lining a heart valve
  10. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    structural abnormality in which the leaflets of the mitral valve do not close tightly
  11. coarctation of the aorta
    the aorta is abnormally narrow
  12. atrial septal defect (ASD)
    there is a permanent hole in the interatrial septum
  13. vetricular septal defect (VSD)
    there is a permanent holle in the interventricular septum
  14. tetralogy of Fallot
    four defects: a ventricular septal defect, narrowing of the pulmonary trunk, hypertrophy of the right ventricle, and abnormal position of the aorta
  15. transposition of the great vessels
    the aorta incorrectly originates from the right ventricles, and the pulmonary trunk incorrectly originates from the left ventricle
  16. patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
    the ductus arteriosus fails to close
  17. patent foramen ovale
    the foramen ovale fails to close
  18. murmur
    abnormal heart sound created by turbulence as blood leaks through a defective heart valve
  19. pericarditis
    inflammation or infection of the pericardial sac with an excessive accumulation of pericardial fluid
  20. cardiac tamponade
    when fluid compresses the heart and prevents it from beating
  21. rheumatic heart disease
    autoimmune response to a previous streptococcal infection, such as a strep throat.
  22. vegetations
    abnormal collections of platelets, fibrin adn bacteria.
  23. arrhythmia
    any type of irregularity in the rate or rhythm of the heart.
  24. fibrillation
    very fast, uncoordinated quivering of the myocardium
  25. flutter
    arrhythmia in which there is a very fast but regular rhythm
  26. heart block
    arrhythmia in which electrical impulses cannot travel normally from the SA node to the Purkinje fibers
  27. premature contraction
    arrhythmia in which there are one or more extra contractions within a cardiac cycle (extrasystole)
  28. premature atrial contractions (PAC's) and premature ventricular contractions (PVC's)
    premature contractions
  29. bigeminy
    a repeating pattern of on normal contraction followed on premature contraction
  30. trigeminy
    a repeating pattern of two normal contraction followed by one premature contraction
  31. couplet
    two premature contractions occurring together
  32. asystole
    complete absence of a heartbeat
  33. palpitation
    an uncomfortable sensation felt in the chest during a premature contraction of the heart
  34. aneurysm
    area of dilation and weakness in the wall of an artery
  35. arteriosclerosis
    narrowed, hardened arteries
  36. bruit
    a harsh, rushing sound made by blood passing through an artery narrowed and roughened by atherosclerosis
  37. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    arteriosclerosis of the coronary arteries
  38. hyperlipidemia
    elevated levels of lipids in the blood
  39. hypertention (HTN)
    elevated blood pressure
  40. hypotention
    low blood pressure
  41. peripheral artery disease (PAD)
    atherosclerosis of the arteries in the legs
  42. peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
    any disease of the arteries of the extremities
  43. phlebitis
    inflammation of a vein
  44. Raynaud's disease
    sudden, severe vasoconstriction and spasm of the arterioles in the fingers and toes, often triggered by cold or emotional upset
  45. varicose veins
    damaged or incompetent valves in a vein
Card Set
Medical Terminology Chapter 5