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  1. Enterotoxinogenic E.coli
    • -Adheres to Intestinal epithelium via Type-I fimbriae.
    • -Causes diarrhea
  2. Uropathogenic E.coli
    • -Adheres to cells of the upper urinary tract via Pili
    • -Invades via "Zipper" mechanism
    • -Contains T3SS
    • -causes Pyelonephritis
  3. Salmonella enterica
    • -Invades via "Trigger" mechanism/membrane ruffling
    • -Uses T3SS to invade
    • -Downregulates TCR expression to inactivate T cell response
  4. Listeria monocytogenes
    • -Acquired by ingesting contaminated foods (ie. soft cheeses)
    • -Induce uptake into epithelial cells
    • -Produce LLO; pore-forming toxin
    • -Replicates in cytosol
    • -Utilizes host actin to for actin tail
    • -->propels bacteria within cytosol and allows to spread to other cells
    • -Can lead to food poisoning
    • -Can invade bloodstream and cause meningitis and miscarriage in pregnant women
    • -Causes Listeriosis
  5. Legionella pneumophila
    • -Acquired from inhalation of contaminated water droplets
    • -Phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages (LCV)
    • -Intravacuolar proliferation via inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion
    • -Damage due to host inflammatory response
    • -Causes tissue damage and Legionnaire's Disease (severe pneumonia)
  6. Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    • -Gram (+) palisades
    • -Secretes [AB] cytotoxins
    • -'A' subunit inactivates elongation factor 2
    • -->Results in inhibition of host protein & cell death
    • -forms pseudomembrane in throat (suffocation)
    • -Causes Diphtheria
  7. Vibrio cholerae
    • -Gram(-) curved rod
    • -Secretes [AB] enterotoxin
    • -Activates host adenylate cyclase
    • -->increase cAMP
    • -->Increase Cl- secretion
    • -affects intestinal cells
    • -Imbalance in electrolyte movement results in release of water into intestinal lumen (diarrhea)
    • -Causes Cholera
  8. Campylobacter jejuni
    • -Gram(-) spiral
    • -Secretes [AB] genotoxin
    • -Targets nucleis and acts as nuclease
    • -->cell cycle arrest & cytotoxicity
    • -Cytolethal Distending Toxin
    • -Causes Gastroentritis
  9. Staphylococcus aureus
    • -Opportunistic
    • -Pore-forming toxin that damages the cell membrane and causes cell death
    • -Superantigen; binding to MHCII and TCR simultaneously
    • -->Toxic Shock Syndrome due to massive cytokine release
    • -Alters complement pathway by cleaving C3
  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • -Acquired by aerosols from infected person
    • -Phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages
    • -Triggers TH1 response-->cytokine release =inflammation
    • -Delay Type Hypersensitivity response causes digestive enzyme release
    • -->Tissue Damage
    • -Granuloma formation
    • -Causes Tuberculosis (inflammatory disease)
  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • -Cell-bound protein adhesion
    • -Binds to mucosal epithelium
    • -Evades host immune response via anti-phagocytic polysaccharide capsule that hides PAMPS
    • -Causes pneumonia
  12. Neisseria gonorrhea
    • -Adheres via Type4 pili to urethral/cervical epithelium
    • -Alters expression of pili genes
    • -->puts different versions on bacterial surface to evade host Ab
    • -Proteases cleave IgA on mucosal surface to inactivate Ab molecules
    • -Causes Gonorrhea
  13. Clostridium difficile
    • -Normal microflora
    • -When imbalanced, become pathogenic
    • -causes diarrhea and other intestinal disease
  14. Bordetella pertussis
    • -Adheres via filamentous hemagglutinin to respiratory epithelium
    • -Extracellular proliferation
    • -Symptoms (cough) aid in transmission
    • -Whooping Cough
  15. Pathogens containing T3SS:
    • -Yersinia
    • -Salmonella
    • -Shigella
    • -Pseudomonas
    • -pathogenic E.coli
  16. Pathogens that secrete AB Toxins:
    • -Corynebacterium diphtheria
    • -Vibrio cholerae
    • -Campylobacter jejuni
Card Set
UNC MED Microbio
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