Med Terms 7

  1. Endocrine System
    • Produce, store, and release hormones into the blood
    • Hormones are used by other organs to control & coordinate functions such as: metabolism, reproduction, growth, and development
  2. Endocrine Glands
    Ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
  3. Hormones
    They bind to receptors in the target tissue which results in specific biologic effects
  4. Thyroid Gland
    • The largest endocrine gland
    • Composed of right & left lobe on either side of trachea below the thyroid cartilage
    • Secretes thyroxine and calcitonin
    • Increases (^) metabolism in body cells
    • Lowers (v) blood calcium
  5. Thyroid cartilage
    Produces the prominence known as the Adam's apple
  6. Isthmus
    A narrow strip of glandular tissue that connects the two lobes on the anterior surface of the trachea
  7. Hormones Secreted by the Thyroid Gland
    • Thyroxine (T4)-regulates metabolism
    • Triidothyronine (T3)-regulates metabolism
    • Calcitonin-stimulates calcium to leave the blood and enter the bones
  8. Parathyroid Glands
    • Four small glands located behind the thyroid gland
    • Secretes Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • Increases (^) blood calcium
  9. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • Regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in blood and bones
    • Mobilizes calcium from bones to bloodstream
  10. Adrenal Glands
    • Pair of glands located on top of the kidneys
    • Each gland consists of two parts; the ADRENAL CORTEX (outer portion of the gland) and an inner portion, the ADRENAL MEDULLA
  11. Adrenal cortex (Outer Portion)
    • Secretes Cortisol, a glucosteroid which increases blood sugar
    • Secretes Aldosterone, a mineralcorticoid which increases reabsorption of sodium
    • Secretes Androgens(Testosterone)/Estrogens, sex hormones which are secondary sex characteristics
  12. Adrenal Medulla (Inner Portion)
    • Inner portion of the gland
    • Secretes Epinephrine (adrenaline) and Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)-both aid body during stress by raising heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration
    • Both hormones are Sympathomimetic

  13. Epinephrine
    • -Adrenaline
    • -Increase heart rate and blood pressure
    • -Release glucose from storage when body needs more energy
  14. Norepinephrine
    • -Noradrenaline
    • -Constrict blood vessels to raise blood pressure
  15. Pancreas Islet Cells (Islets of Langerhans)
    • Endocrine cells inside the pancreas, which is located partly behind the stomach
    • Secretes Insulin (glucose to glycogen) and Glucagon (glycogen to glucose)
  16. Pituitary Gland
    • Pea size gland located at the base of the brain; consists of two lobes (anterior and posterior)
    • The hypothalamus (region of the brain under the thalamus and above the pituitary gland) controls release of hormones from the pituitary gland
  17. Hypothalamus
    • region of the brain under the thalamus and above the pituitary gland
    • controls release of hormones from the pituitary gland
    • It releases thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), which triggers the pituitary gland to release TSH.
  18. Pituitary Anterior Lobe
    • Secretes (1) Growth Hormone-increases bone and tissue growth
    • (2) Thyroid-stimulating Hormone-Stimulates thyroid gland and thyroxine secretion
    • (3) ACTH-stimulates adrenal cortex-cortisol
    • (4) Follicle stimulating hormone-Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis
    • (5) Luteinizing Hormone-Promotes ovulation, testosterone secretion
    • (6) Prolactin-Promotes growth of breast tissue, milk production
  19. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex and increases its secretion of steroid hormones
    • Produced by the Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland
  20. Gonadotrophic hormones
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • In females, stimulates growth of eggs in ovaries, the production of hormones and ovulation
    • In males, FSH influences production of sperm and LH stimulates testes to produce testosterone
    • Produced by the Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland
  21. Growth Hormone (GH)/Somatotrophin (STH)
    • Promotes protein synthesis that results in growth of bones, muscles, other tissues
    • Produced by the Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland
  22. Prolactin
    • Stimulates breast development during pregnancy and sustains milk production after birth
    • Produced by the Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland
  23. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    • Stimulates the thyroid gland and secretion of T3 and T4, which help control the body's metabolism
    • Produced by the Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland
  24. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • Stimulates reabsorption of water absorption by the kidney tubules
    • Increases blood pressure by constricting arterioles
    • Produced by the Posterior lobe of the Pituitary gland
  25. Oxytocin
    • Stimulates uterine contractions
    • Produced by the Posterior lobe of the Pituitary gland
  26. Pituitary Posterior Lobe
    • Secretes Antidiuretic hormone, which stimulates reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
    • Secretes Oxytocin, which stimulates contraction of uterus during childbirth
  27. Ovaries
    • Female reproductive glands attached to the uterus
    • Produce estrogens- development of ova, female secondary sex characteristics
    • Produce progesterone-prepares and maintains uterus in pregnancy
  28. Testes
    • Male reproductive glands located in the scrotum
    • Produce testosterone, which help in development of sperm, male secondary sex characteristics
  29. Hyperthyroidism (hypersecretion)
    Graves Disease
    • Most common form is Graves disease (autoimmune)
    • Increased metabolism, increase in heart rate, higher body temperature, hyperactivity, exophthalmos (protrusion of eyeballs)
    • Usually women
    • Genetic predisposition
    • Treatment: Antithyroid drugs to reduce amount of thyroid hormone produced; radioactive iodine to destroy overactive glandular tissue
  30. Hyposecretion
    • Underactivity of Thyroid gland
    • Result of thyroidectomy, thryoiditis, etc.
    • Symptoms: fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain
    • Types: Myxedema, Cretinism
  31. Myxedema
    • Hyposecretion of Thyroid Gland
    • Advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood
    • Atrophy of thyroid gland; dry, puffy skin, atherosclerosis
  32. Cretinism
    • Hyposecretion of Thyroid Gland
    • Extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood
    • Leads to lack of normal physical and mental growth
    • Treatment: administration of thyroid hormone
  33. Goiter
    • Enlargement of thyroid gland
    • Occurs due to lack of iodine in diet, which leads to low T3 and T4
    • Stimulates thyroid gland to secrete more hormones, but bc no iodine is available, the gland is increased
    • Prevention: iodine in diet
  34. Thyroid Carcinoma
    • Thyroid scan
    • Diagnosis made by fine needle aspiration, surgical biopsy or thyroidectomy
    • Treatment: radioactive iodine to destroy remaining tissue
  35. Thyroid Scan
    Scan of the thyroid gland using radioactive substance, ultrasound, or computed tomography to show the size, shape, and position of the thyroid gland
  36. Thyroid function tests
    Blood tests that measure thyroid hormone levels in the blood
  37. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Test
    • Blood test that measures the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood
    • Used to diagnose hyperthyroidism or to monitor thyroid replacement therapy
  38. Thyroxine Level Test
    Blood test that measures the amount of thyroxine in the blood to diagnose hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism
  39. Cushing Syndrome
    • Abnormal condition of Adrenal Cortex
    • Group of symptoms produced by the secretion of excess cortisol
    • Obesity, moon-like fullness of the face, osteoporosis
    • Cause may be excess ACTH secretion, tumor of the adrenal cortex, prolonged administration of steroids (athletes, patients treated for autoimmune disorders)
  40. Addison Disease
    • Abnormal condition of Adrenal Cortex
    • Group of symptoms produced by hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex
    • Malaise, weakness, muscle atrophy, hyperpigmentation
    • Cause: autoimmune adrenalitis
    • Treatment: cortisone and salt intake or administration of synthetic form of aldosterone
  41. Pheochromocytoma
    • Abnormal condition of the adrenal medulla
    • Benign tumor of the adrenal medulla
    • Tumor produces excess amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • Hypertension, palpitations, sweating, flushing of the face, muscle spasms
    • Treatment: surgery to remove tumor, antihypertensive drugs
  42. Hyperinsulinism
    • Abnormal condition of the Pancreas
    • Endocrine cells inside the pancreas secrete insulin, regulates blood glucose levels
    • Results in hypoglycemia
    • Excess secretion of insulin
    • May be a tumor of the pancreas (benign adenoma or carcinoma) or overdose of insulin
    • Symptoms include fainting, convulsions, loss of consciousness
  43. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Abnormal condition of the Pancreas
    • Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
    • Prevents sugar from leaving the blood and entering the body cells to produce energy
  44. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
    • Clinical features: (1) usually occurs before 30 y.o., (2) abrupt, rapid onset, little or no insulin production, (3) thin or normal body weight at onset, (4) Ketoacidosis often occurs
    • Symptoms: Polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia
    • Treatment: Insulin
  45. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    • Clinical features: (1) Usually occurs after age 30, (2) gradual onset; asymptomatic, (3) Insulin usually present, (4) 85% are obese, (5) Ketoacidosis seldom occurs
    • Symptoms: Polyuria sometimes seen, polydipsia sometimes seen, polyphagia sometimes seen
    • Treatment: diet, oral hypoglycemics, or insulin
  46. Blood Glucose/Blood Sugar Test
    Test to measure the amount of glucose in the blood
  47. Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG)
    Blood test that measures the amount of glucose in the blood after fasting for at least 8 hours
  48. Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)
    • Blood test that measures the amount of glucose in the blood after administering a dose of glucose to the patient
    • Used to gauge the body's ability to metabolize glucose
  49. Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HgA1C)
    • Blood test that indicates the amt. of glucose in the blood over the previous few months
    • Used to indicate how well diabetes mellitus in being controlled
  50. Glucometer
    Device for measuring blood glucose levels from a drop of blood obtained by a fingerstick
  51. Insulin Pump
    • Device used for monitoring blood glucose
    • Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the approximate amt. of insulin is then injected into the body in a calculated, controlled manner
  52. Acromegaly
    • Abnormal condition of the Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland
    • Enlargement of the extremities caused by hypersecretion of the anterior pituitary after puberty
    • Excess production of hormone is produced by adenomas of the pituitary gland that occur during adulthood
    • Bones in the hands, feet, face, and jaw grow abnormally large
    • Pituitary adenoma can be irradiated or surgically removed
  53. Dwarfism
    • Hyposecretion of the Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland
    • Normal mental development
    • Bones remain small
    • Administer growth hormone
    • Achondroplastic dwarfs: genetic defect in cartilage formation; limits growth of long bones
  54. Hyperparathyroidism
    • Abnormal condition of the Parathyroid Glands
    • xcessive production of parathyroid hormone
    • Hypercalcemia
    • Loss of bone density, susceptibility to fractures and cysts
    • Cause is parathyroid hyperplasia or parathyroid tumor
    • Treatment: resection of overactive tissues, medications to decrease bone turnover and hypercalcemia
  55. Hypoparathyroidism
    • Abnormal condition of the Parathyroid Glands
    • Deficient production of parathyroid hormone
    • Hypocalcemia
    • Muscle and nerve weakness
    • Muscle spasms (tetany)
    • Treatment: administration of calcium and vitamin D
  56. Endocrinology
    Medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the endocrine system
  57. Endocrinologist
    Physician who specializes in endocrinology
  58. Uptake tests
    • Thyroid scans and uptake tests use small doses of radioactive chemicals
    • to create pictures of the thyroid gland. These tests help to assess the
    • size, structure and function of the thyroid.
  59. Acr/o
    Extremity, tip
  60. Aden/o
  61. Adren/o, Adrenal/o
    Adrenal glands
  62. Calc/o, calci/o
  63. Cortic/o
  64. Crin/o
    To secrete
  65. Endocrin/o
  66. Gluc/o, Glucos/o, Glyc/o, Glycos/o
    Glucose, sugar
  67. Gonad/o
    Sex glands (ovaries, testes)
  68. Hormon/o
  69. Pancreat/o
  70. Parathyroid/o
    Parathyroid glands
  71. Phys/o
  72. Pituitar/o
    Pituitary gland
  73. Somat/o
  74. Thym/o
    Thymus gland
  75. Thyr/o, thyroid/o
    Thyroid gland
  76. -in, -ine
    A substance
  77. -megaly
  78. -oid
  79. -penia
  80. -tropin
    stimulating the function of
  81. eu-
    good, normal
  82. oxy-
    rapid, sharp
  83. pan-
  84. poly-
    many, much
  85. tetra-
  86. tri-
  87. Hypogonadism
    • When the body's sex glands produce little or no hormones. In men, these
    • glands (gonads) are the testes. In women, these glands are the ovaries.
  88. Thyroiditis
    The inflammation of the thyroid gland
  89. Hypercalciuria
    • Also known as hypercalcinuria
    • The condition of elevated calcium in urine
  90. Polydipsia
    excessive thirst
  91. Glycosuria
    The excretion of glucose into the urine.

    Normal urine contains no glucose because the kidneys are able to reclaim all of the filtered glucose back into the bloodstream.
  92. Hyperkalemia
    The condition in which the concentration of  potassium (K+) in the blood is elevated.
  93. Euthyroid
    normal thyroid gland
  94. Adenomegaly
    abnormal enlargement of a gland
  95. Endocrinopathy
    any disease due to disorder of the endocrine system
  96. Thyroparathyroidectomy
    Surgical removal of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.
  97. Thyroidotomy
    an incision of the larynx through the thyroid cartilage.
  98. Endogenous
    produced inside the body
  99. Exogenous
    Produced outside the body
  100. Metabolism
    All physical and chemical changes that occur in tissue
Card Set
Med Terms 7
Lesson 7: Endocrine System