Female Reproductive Lecture

  1. female gamete is called
  2. GnRH stimulates release of what two hormones?  to do what?
    • FSH- cause maturation of oocytes
    • LH- trigger ovulation
  3. what does the corpus luteum secrete?
    estrogen and progesterone
  4. what does an increase in estrogen cause?
    • negative feedback to hypothalamus --> inhibits GnRH
    • --> no FSH, LH 
    • when pregnant, more estrogen so no ovulation?
    • -stop growth of other follicles when one is ready
  5. Atresia
    degeneration of follicles (don't need all eggs)
  6. what does the "winning" graafian follicle to to make sure it wins the race?
    secretes estrogen to inhibit GnRh and stop growth of other follicles
  7. what prevents entry of micro-organisms into uterus?  what happens during ovulation?
    • mucus plug (in cervical canal)
    • gets thinner
  8. 4 most common cancers in women, in order
    • 1.  Breast cancer
    • 2.  Lung cancer
    • 3.  Colon cancer
    • 4.  Gynocologic (including cervical cancer)
  9. what ages are typically affected by cervical cancer?  
    risk factors?  
    • 30-50
    • smoking, HPV, STD's
    • Pap smear
  10. childbirth- fancy name
  11. what arteries constrict to cause menstruation?
    spiral arteries
  12. what layer of uterus contracts in parturition?
    What hormone causes contractions?
    • myometrium
    • oxytocin
  13. when is day 1 of the uterine/menstrual cycle?
    how long does it typically last?
    • Day 1= first day of menstruation
    • 21-35 days, average 28
  14. first period (uterine cycle) is called _______
    when does it occur?
    • menarche
    • puberty- 11-12 years old
  15. what causes puberty to begin?  why does it occur earlier in the US?
    • fat produces leptin --> triggers hypothalamus to release estrogen
    • US kids are fat
  16. Termination of uterine cycles
    occurs when?
    • menopause
    • 45-55, average 52
  17. Amenorrhea
    2 kinds
    • Primary amenorrhea: failure to start menses
    • Secondary: interruption of 6 months
  18. 3 functions of vagina
    passage for elimination of menstrual fluids

    receives spermatozoa during sexual intercourse

    inferior portion of birth canal
  19. vestibular bulbs
    • erectile tissue below muscles of vagina
    • fill with blood, put pressure on penis
    • (pleasure)
  20. bulbospongiousus muscles
    • on either side of vaginal entrance
    • kegals
  21. pH of vagina
  22. analogous to penis (sensory)
  23. analogous to bulbourethral glands of male
    greater vestibular glands (lubrication)
  24. analogous to prostate
    paraurethral glands
  25. hormone responsible for production of milk
  26. hormone responsible for release of milk
  27. Cooper's droop
    stretch of suspensory ligaments of breasts over time
  28. signs of breast cancer
    • palpable lump
    • puckering of skin
    • change in skin texture
    • drainage of nipple
  29. risk factors for breast cancer
    • estrogen exposure (more common for women who start period early/reach menopause late)
    • aging
    • excessive alcohol consumption
    • excessive fat intake
    • smoking
  30. where do breast cancer tumors begin?
    cells of ducts
  31. what percent body fat does a girl need to go through menarche?
  32. Thelarche
    • Thelarche: earliest sign of puberty
    •    -breast development

    Pubarche: axillary hair, sebaceous glands, libido
  33. when does a girl begin ovulating?
    one year after menarche
  34. hormones active during puberty and what they do
    • Estradiol - more active form of estrogen
    • -fat distribution, skin thickens

    GH- increase in height, widening of pelvis
  35. Oogenesis by the numbers
    how many eggs are you born with?
    how many do you have at puberty?
    how many times do you ovulate in a lifetime?
    how many are left by menopause?
    2 million

    puberty: 400,00

    480 ovulations

    1000 at menopause
  36. 2 phases of ovarian cycle
    Follicular (day 1-14)

    Luteal phase (15-28)
  37. what happens in the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?
    FSH levels high

    dominant follicle secretes estradiol

    as levels of estrogen/estradiol increase, GnRH is inhibited

    stops other follicles from maturing, stimulates release of large amount of LH

    leads to ovulation
  38. what triggers ovulation?
    sudden surge in LH
  39. describe "side effects" of ovulation
    • lasts 2-3 minutes
    • body temp rises about half a degree F
    • Mittel Schmerz- pain
    • best time to get pregnant
  40. what day of your cycle do you ovulate?
    about day 14
  41. what hormone's level is increased during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?  what effect does this have?
    • Progesterone, estradiol, inhibin
    • inhibits FSH and LH so ovulation doesn't occur again
  42. what hormone is released when implantation occurs?
    • HCG  
    • maintains corpus luteum, which continues to secrete progesterone to maintain endometrium
  43. uterine cycle also known as ___________
    menstrual cycle
  44. 4 phases of menstrual phase
    Proliferative phase (1-14)

    Secretory phase  (15-26)

    Premenstrual phase  (last 2 days)

    menstrual phase
  45. what happens during the proliferative phase?  hormones?
    estrogen is building up endometrial layer
  46. what happens during the secretory phase?
    • day 15-26
    • estrogen and progesterone are maintaining endometrium for implantation
  47. what does endometrial gland secrete?
    glycogen -- ovum food
  48. what happens in the premenstrual phase?
    • last two days before menstruation
    • progesterone levels drop --> constriction of spiral arteries
    • mucous plug thins
  49. Menstrual phase
    • fluid discharges from vagina
    • first day of discharge is day 1 of new cycle
  50. what is menstrual fluid made up of?
    blood, cells, serous fluid
  51. how long does the average period last?
    how much fluid is discharged?
    about 5 days

    40 ml blood, 35 ml serous fluid
  52. what does fibrinolysin do?
    prevents clotting of menstrual blood
  53. penis becoming flaccid after orgasm is called
  54. 3 things that can cause impotence
    • stress
    • sleep apnea
    • obesity
  55. Tenting effect
    • uterus stands up during coitus
    • allows cervix to grab sperm
  56. female ejaculation is caused by what?
    paraurethral glands
  57. andropause
    slow degredation in testosterone and increase in estrogen in males
  58. concentrations of which hormones decline in menopause?
    which rise?
    • estrogen and progesterone decline
    • GnRH, FSH, LH increase
  59. Perimenopause
    • about one year before menopause begins
    • irregular cycles
  60. decline in estrogen levels leads to:
    • reduction of breast size
    • thinning of urethral/vaginal epithelia --> less stretch, more dryness
    • osteoporosis 
    • thinner skin
    • increased cholesterol levels
  61. bacterial STD that shows symptoms such as burning pee and free-flowing white, yellow or green pus/discharge
    • Gonorrhea
    • bacterial

    can affect the anus, eyes, mouth, genitals, or throat

    often asympotomatic in women, or mistaken for bladder/vaginal infection

    may lead to sterility, PID
  62. PID
    • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
    • complication of chlamydia or gonorrhea
    • lower abdominal/pelvic pain
    • scarring of uterine tubes, uterus, ovaries
    • ectopic pregnancy
    • infertility
  63. syphilis

    • primary stage:  firm, round, painless sore (chancre)
    • goes away in about 6 weeks regardless of treatment

    • secondary stage:  rash, maybe on palms/soles of feet
    • fever
    • hair loss
    • swollen lymph nodes
    • joint pain

    • tertiary: difficulty coordinating muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, dementia
    • damage to internal organs
  64. cure for syphilis
    • antibiotics before tertiary stage
    • symptoms will clear even without treatment
  65. most common STD
  66. Herpes

    clear pustules on groin


    increases risk of HIV
  67. most rapidly increasing STD in USA
    genital warts
  68. genital warts
    • virus -- HPV
    • vaccine: Gardasil
    • can lead to cancers of penis, vagina, cervix, anus
    • (90% of strains don't cause cancer)
  69. #1 cause of liver transplant in US
    Hepatitus C
  70. Hepatitus C
    • viral
    • inflammation of liver
    • usually asymptomatic
    • passed through contact with contaminated blood
  71. Hepatitus B
    • can be passed through placenta
    • vaccine available at birth
  72. Chlamydia
    • bacterial
    • "silent disease"-- very often asymptomatic
    • abnormal discharge
    • burning sensation when peeing
    • pelvic/abdominal pain
    • fever
    • pain during sex
    • burning/itching around opening of penis
    • antibiotics
  73. most commonly reported STD in USA
  74. how does chlamydia infection grow?
    • like a virus
    • bacteria attaches to cell and repopulates inside it
  75. louse in genital hair
    • crabs
    • shampoo, comb, shave
  76. how do you do the rhythm method?
    failure rate
    • don't have sex 7 days before or 2 days after ovulation
    • 25%
Card Set
Female Reproductive Lecture
Female Reproductive system lecture