1. 1) support lower extremities
    2) support and protect the soft body organs
    3) with muscles, allow body to move about
    4) store minerals, such as Calcium and Phosphorus
    5) provides framework
    6) red bone marrow produces blood cells
    Functions of the Skeletal system
  2. Skelatal,Muscle, and Cardiac
    Three types of muscle
  3. longer than they are wide. found in arms, forearms, palms, fingers, thigh, legs and instep. metacarpals
    Long Bones
  4. shaped like cubes and primarily found in the wrist and ankles
    Short Bones
  5. thin, flat, and curved. form ribs, breastbone, skull and shoulder girdle
    Flat Bones
  6. differently shaped, hip bones, vertebrae, and some in the skull
    Irregular Bones
  7. Bone is also called
    Osseous Tissue
  8. dense, hard bone tissue primarily found in shafts of long bones and on outer surface of other bones, tightly packed, provides great deal of strength. consists of many osteons, running parallel to each other, communicating blood vessels run laterally and connect the osteons with each other and with periosteal lining, which supply bone tissue with blood that supplies tissues with oxygen and nutrients
    Compact Bone
  9. Less dense, located primarily at the end of long bones and in center of other bones; seperated by holes that give it a swiss cheese appearance, which are important for 2 reasons (1. decrease weight of bone and 2) contain red bone marrow which supplies the bone blood and also produces blood cells for other parts of body)
    Spongy or Cancellous Bone
  10. Long shaft of the bone
  11. enlarged ends of the bone that articulate with a second bone at a joint
  12. band of hyaline cartilage located near proximal and distal ends of long bone. Where longitudinal growth occurs
    epiphyseal disk
  13. sensitive to the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone causing fusion and longitudal growth to stop; more sensitive to estrogen making girls shorter than boys; after puberty, longitudal growth usually ceases
    Epiphyseal Disk
  14. hyperstimulation of the growth hormone causes
  15. hypostimulation of the growth hormone causes
    a form of dwarfism
  16. induces premature fusion of the epiphyseal disk, thereby permanently stunting growth
  17. on the underside of the periosteum continuously deposit bone on the external bone surface; build new bone
  18. found on the inner bone surface surrounding the medullary cavity, break down bone tissue, thereby hollowing out the interior of the bone
  19. process whereby osteoclasts break down bone matrix; moves calcium from bone to the blood; plays a crucial role in regulation of blood calcium levels
    Bone Resorption
  20. factor that plays a role is bone growth
    weight bearing
  21. the people bones tend to lose bone mass and are easily broken when stressed
    the elderly and sedentary
  22. break in which the overlying skin remains intact and local tissue damage in minimal
    A simple fracture
  23. a broken bone that also pierce the skin; cause extensive tissue damage; risk of infection is a concern
    A compound fracture
  24. is a incomplete break in the bone and usually occurs in children
    A greenstick fracture
  25. line of the fracture extends in a spiral direction along the diaphysis; subject to a twisting motion
    A spiral fracture
  26. fracture in which there are two or more fragments; the small fragments seem to be floating
    A comminuted fracture
  27. a comminuted fracture in which the two parts of the broken bone have been jammed into each other
    A impacted fracture
  28. A large rounded knob that usually articulates with another bone
  29. A prominent projection on a bone
  30. An opening through a bone; usually serves as a passageway for nerves, blood vessels, and ligaments
  31. A cavity or hollow space
  32. bones of the cranium, face, middle ear bones, hyoid bone, vertebral column, and bony thorax
    The Axial Skeleton
  33. bones of the pelvic girdles, the upper extremities (arms, forarms, wrist palms and fingers) and lower extremities (thighs, legs, ankles, instep and toes)
    The Appendicular Skeleton
  34. sits on top of the vertebral column and is formed by two groups of bones; the cranium and the facial bones
    The skull
  35. bony structure that encases and protects the brain
  36. forms forehead and the upper part of the bony structure of surrounding the eyes
    Frontal bone
  37. two; form the upper sides of the head and roof of the cranial cavity
    Parietal Bones
  38. two on the side of head; close to ears; include external auditory meatus, the zygomatic process which forms the cheekbone, the styloid process a sharp projection used as attatchment for the tongue and larynx, and the mastoid process which forms a point of attachment for some of the neck muscles
    Temporal bones
  39. located at the back and base of the cranium
    Occipital Bone
  40. large hole in the occipital bone allows for brainstem to extend downward on either side are bony projections called condyles that sit on the first vertebrae of the vertebral column
    Foramen Magnum
  41. butterfly shaped; forms part of the floor and part of the cranium; also forms part of the orbits surrounding the eye.
    Sphenoid bone
  42. irregularly shaped bone located between the eye orbits; major supporting bony structure of nasal cavity
    Ethmoid bone
  43. the lower jaw; carries lower teeth; anterior forms the chin; forms only moveable joint in the skull;
  44. two posterior upright projections have bony projections; can be felt as the depression immediately in front of the ear
    Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
  45. two maxillary bones fuse to form the upper jaw; carries the upper teeth; forms the anterior portion of the hard part palate of the mouth; also forms part of the nasal cavity and the eye orbit
  46. two bones that form the posterior part of the floor of the nasal cavity
    Palantine bone
  47. air-filled cavities located in several of the bones of the skull; they lessen the weight of the skull and modulate the sound of the voice
  48. four sinuses that surround and connect with the nasal structures
    Paranasal sinuses
  49. inflammation of the sinuses
  50. connect the nasal passages and the throat
  51. cause the membranes that line the facial sinuses to oversecrete mucus. the mucus forms an excellent medium for bacterial growth
  52. the bones of the adult skull form a unique type of joint
  53. the infant skull area that have not yet been converted to bone
  54. allow skull to compress during birth; allows for the continued growth of the brain and throughout infancy
    Unfused sutures
  55. sutures of the infant skull fuse to early preventing growth of the brain; characterized by a small cranium, restricted brain growth, and impaired intellectual functioning
  56. the sutures of the infant skull expand too much; the bones are forced apart and the skull enlarges
  57. it will bulge outward in response to increasing pressure within the skull
  58. where to check for dehydration in a infant
  59. each ear contains three small bones called
  60. called the backbone; extends form the skull to the pelvis
    the vertebral column
  61. constists of 26 bones; stacked in a column
  62. 1) forms a support structure for the head and thorax
    2) forms an attachment for the pelvic girdle
    3) Encases and protects spinal cord as the cord extends from the brain into the spinal cavity
    4) provides flexibility for the body
    four major functions of the vertebral column
  63. vertebrae located in the neck region
    cervical vertebrae C1-C7
  64. U-shaped bone located in in the upper neck; anchors the tongue and associated with swallowing; often fractured in strangulation
    hyoid bone
  65. Large vertebrae located at C7; used as a landmark in assessing surface anatomy
    vertebra prominens
  66. vertebrae located in the chest region
    thoracic vertebrae T1-T12
  67. located in the lower back
    lumbar vertebrae
  68. five sacral vertebrae fused into one
  69. tailbone
  70. first cervical vertebra; supports the skull and allows you to nod "yes'
  71. second cervical vertebra; acts as a pivot  or swivel; allows your head to rotate to the side to side as you say "no"
  72. opening for the spinal cord
    vertabral foramen
  73. vertebral column is also called
  74. refers to the failure to the lamina to fuse during fetal developement
    Spina Bifida
  75. surgical procedure performed to access the intervertebral disc
  76. refers to the lateral curvature of the spine; usually involving the thoracic vertebrae; can impair breathing
  77. exaggerated thoracic curvature; can impair breathing; sometimes called swayback
  78. exaggerated lumbar curvature; sometimes called swayback
  79. chest region; surrounds and protects the lungs, heart , large blood vessels, and some abdominal organs such as liver and spleen; plays a role in breathing and support the shoulders
  80. composed of sternum, ribs, or thoracic vertebrae
    thoracic cage
  81. breastbone, dagger shaped, bone located along the the midline of the anterior chest
  82. manubrium, body and xiphoid process
  83. tip of the sternum; serves as point of attachment for abdominal muscles, landmark for CPR
    Xiphoid process
  84. top 7 pairs attach direrctly to the sternum by costal cartilage
    true ribs
  85. 5 pairs attach indirectly to the sternum and do not attach at all
    false ribs
  86. bottom 2 pairs of false ribs lack sternal attatchment; because of their location and lack of sternal support; easily broken
    floating ribs
  87. space between the ribs
    intercostal spaces
  88. muscles located between the ribs
    intercostal muscles
  89. should be less than 90 degrees angle formed by ribs and xipoid process; pregnancy increases this angle
    Costal Angle
  90. contains two bones 1 scapula and 1 scapula; support the upper limb and serves as a place of attachment for the muscle
    shoulder or pectoral girdle
  91. collarbone; articulates with both sternum and scapula; most frequently broken bone
  92. called the shoulder blade; large flat bone shaped like a triangle
  93. site on scapula where the head of the humerus thereby allowing you to rotate your arm at the shoulder
    glenoid cavity
  94. serves as a point of attachment for ligaments and muscles; forms the "pointy" part of the shoulder
    Acromoin Process
  95. attachment point for muscles and ligaments in the shoulders
    Coracoid Cavity
  96. upper arm bone; fits into the glenoid cavity allowing the arm to rotate at the shoulder joint
  97. second bone of the forarm; larger of two bones; located on the medial or little finger side of the forearm
  98. the point of the elbow
    Olecranon Process
  99. eight bones of the wrist; tightly bound by ligaments
  100. five bones form the palm of the hand; in line with fingers
    Metacarpal bones
  101. 14 finger bones
  102. two coxal bones that articulate with each other anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly
    pelvic girdle
  103. 1) bears the weight of the body
    2) serves as a point of attachment for the thighs
    3) protects the organs located in pelvic cavity including the urinary bladder and reproductive organs
    The Pelvic Girdle
  104. formed by the pelvic girdle, scrum, and coccyx
  105. hip bone; composed of 3 parts, the ilium, ischium, and pubis;
    Coxal Bone
  106. the ilium, ishium, and pubis form a depression; important cause it receives the head of femur and therefore enables the thigh to rotate at the hip joint
    the acetabulum
  107. the largest part of the coxal bone; can be felt at the hip; outer edge is called the crest; produces blood cells and common site for bone marrow biopsy
    ilium crest
  108. most inferior part of the coxal bone
    the ishium
  109. most anterior part of coxal bone
  110. to pubic bones join together in front to form; a disc of cartilage separates the pubic bone; response to hormones expands the disc enlarging the pelvic cavity to provide space for growing fetus
    Symphysis pubis
  111. thighbone; longest and strongest bone of the body; easily broken in a fall; in bedridden patients forced immobility causes many complications such as blood clots and pneumonia
  112. provide sites of attachment for many muscles
    Greater and Lesser Trochanters
  113. kneecap; triangular bone located within a tendon that passes over the knee
  114. shinbone; articulates with the femur at the knee; larger weight bearing bone of the body
  115. long, thin bone positioned laterally alongside the tibia; is not part of the knee and does not bear any weight
  116. seven bones form the ankle;
  117. articulates with the tibia and fibula
  118. heel bone supports most of the weight of the body
  119. 14 bones of the toes
  120. great toe
  121. develop in response to excessive force whereby the big toe is compressed and forced towards and forced toward the second toe
  122. shift of weight to the balls of the feet causes painful and debilitating nerve growths between the toes
  123. shift of the body weight causes pain in the ball of the foot
  124. excessive pressure of the heel of the shoe on bone causes an enlargement on the heel bone so common it has its own medical name
    Hangland's Deformity
  125. shift in weight adds unnatural stress to the knee joint; knee replacement is more common in women and related to wearing abusive footwear
    knee pain
  126. site where 2 bones meet
    joint or articulation
  127. 1) hold bones together
    2) provide flexibility to the rigid skeleton
    Functions of Joints
  128. branch of science that studies joints
  129. branch that studies disease of the joints
  130. cranial bones; permit no movement
    immoveable joints
  131. Invertebral discs; symphysis pubis; permit limited movement
    slightly movable joints
  132. provide more flexibility and movement; also known as synovial joints
    freely movable joints
  133. articular surface of each of the two bones is lined with
    Articular Cartilage
  134. made of fibrous connective tissue; encloses the joint in a strong sleeve-like covering
    Joint capsule
  135. lines the joint capsule thereby decreasing the friction within the joint
    synovial fluid
  136. small sacs of synovial fluid and tendons that cross the joint; permits the tendons to slide as the bones move
  137. surrounding the join the articulating bones together and stabilize the joint can be stretched or torn, causing pain and loss of mobility
    Supporting Ligaments
  138. allows movement similar to the movement of two bones joined together by a hinge; allows movement in one direction, includes, elbows, knees and fingers
    Hinge Joint
  139. formed when the ball shaped end of one bone fits into a cup shaped socket of another bone so bones can move in many directions around a central point; allows for a wide range of movement also allows for easy displacement of the joint struncture. shoulder and hip joint
    Ball-and-Socket Joint
  140. allows for rotation around the length of a bone; occurs as the atlas (rotation) and axis (pivot)
    Pivot Joint
  141. formed when the surface of both articulating bones form concave and convex areas that fit together
    Saddle Joint
  142. formed by the interaction of the flat surface of the articulating bones; allows for limited but complex gliding movement; found in wrist and vertebral column
    Gliding Joint
  143. formed when oval-shaped articular surface of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of the second articulating bone; wrist and knuckles
    Condyloid Joint
  144. crescent-shaped pads that rest on the tibia
    Medial and Lateral Meniscus
  145. knee joint is reinforced and aligned by supporting ligaments
    Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Posterior Cruciate Ligament
  146. acronym used for sprains and strains
    • R=Rest
    • I=Ice
    • C=Compression
    • E= Elevation
  147. frequent victims of athletic events; prevents hyperextension of the knee and is torn when forcibly hyperextended
  148. the shoulder joint is called this; indicating that the head of the humerus fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula
    glenohumeral joint
  149. muscles and tendons that hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity
    the rotator cuff
  150. the elbow joint is called
    humeroulnar joint
  151. ball-and-socket joint formed where the head of the femur articulated with the acetabulum, the depression formed by the three coxal bones
    the Hip
  152. bending of a joint that decreases the angle between the bones
  153. straightening of a joint so that the angle between the bone increases
  154. bending of the foot down as in toe dancing
    Plantar Flexion
  155. bending of the foot up towards the leg
  156. this id the movement away for the midline of the body
  157. this is the movement towards the midline of the body
  158. this is the turning the sole inwards so that it faces the opposite foot
  159. turning of the foot outwards
  160. turning of the hand so palm faces upward
  161. turning of the hand so palm faces downward
  162. combination of movements as in circular arm movement
  163. skeletal, smooth and cardiac
    types of muscle
  164. generally attached to bone; contracts by choice (voluntary) cells are long, shaped like cylinders or tubes; composed of proteins arranged to appear striped or striated
  165. produces movement, maintains body posture, and stabilize joints; produce considerable heat and therefore help to maintain body temperature; limited capacity for regeneration
    skeletal muscle
  166. generally found on the wall s of the visera; called viseral muscle; found in tubes such as stomach, bronchioles, and blood vessels; functions automatically (involuntarily) does not appear striped; called non striped muscle;
    Smooth Muscle
  167. smooth muscle contraction is slower and continues for longer periods of time; this characteristic allows for continuous partial contraction of the smooth muscle
    smooth muscle tone
  168. of smooth muscle in blood vesselshelps maintain blood pressure, allows the walls of organs such as the uterus, the bladder, and stomach to expand to store their contents temporarily
    muscle tone
  169. found only in the heart, where it functions to pump blood throughout the body; no capacity for regeneration; classified as involuntary and striated
  170. long branching cells that fit together tightly at junctions promote rapid conduction of electrical signals throughout the heart
    intercalated discs
  171. large skeletal muscle is surrounded by layer of tough connective tissue
  172. outer layer of fascia
  173. surrounds smaller bundles of muscles fibers
  174. individual muscle fibers are found within the fasciles and are surrounded by the third layer of connective tissue
  175. the epimysium, the perimysium, and endomysium extend towards and attach to the bone as a long cord-like structure
  176. severe crush injury , muscle is damaged, becomes inflamed and leaks fluid into compartment; pressure increases and compresses the nerve; deprived of o2 and nutrients nerves begin to die. Immediate treatment involves reduction of pressure by surgically reducing the fascia lengthwise. failure to restore blood flow results in permanent muscle and nerve damage
    compartment or crush syndrome
  177. tendons attach muscle to bone, muscles attach directly to bone or to soft tissue, and muscle to muscle and muscle  to bone
    how muscles attatch
  178. flat sheetlike fascia
  179. muscle fiber that has more than 1 nucleus and is surrounded by a cell membrane
  180. when cell membranes penetrate deep into the interior muscle fiber they form
    transverse tubules (T tubules)
  181. muscle composed of long cylinderical structures
  182. myofibril is made up of a series of contractile units called
  183. each sarcomere extends from zline to zline and is formed by a unique arrangement of contractile proteins  referred to as
    thin and thick filaments
  184. composed of 2 proteins called actin and troponin-tropomysin complex
    thin filament
  185. contains binding sites for the myosin
  186. thicker myosin filaments sit between thin filaments extending from the thick myosin filaments are structures called
    myosin heads
  187. arrangement of thick and thin filaments give skeletal and cardiac muscle
    their striated appearance
  188. when stimulated the myosin heads make contact with the myosin binding sites on actin forming temporary connections
  189. once cross-bridges are formed , the myosin heads rotate pulling the actin towards the center of the sarcomere, rotation of myosin heads cause thin filaments to slide past the thick filaments.
    Muscles shortening
  190. occurs when the cross-bridges are broken and the thin and thick filaments return to their original position
    Muscle Relaxation
  191. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Calcium play important role in
    contraction and relaxation of muscle
  192. The ATP, however can perform only if _______ is present
  193. when muscle is relaxed ________ is stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum away from thin and thick filaments
  194. calcium is released from the SR and causes the actin, myosin, and ATP to interact and slide
    Muscle contraction
  195. calcium is pumped back into the SR, away from the actin, myosin, and ATP; cross-bridges are broken
    muscle relaxes
  196. muscle must be stimulated by a _________ to contract
    A Nerve
  197. nerve that supplies skeletal muscle
    somatic motor nerve
  198. A motor nerve composed of many cell; emerges from the spinal cord and travels to the skeletal muscle
    motor neuron
  199. strength of a muscle contraction depends on the number of __________ that are stimulated
    motor units
  200. area where motor neurons meet the muscle is called
    neuromuscular junction
  201. the stimulated neuron causes release of a chemical substance that diffuses across NMJ and stimulates the
    muscle membrane
  202. stimulation of the nerve causes an electrical impulse, or nerve impulse, to move along the neuron toward the ending of the neuron
    step 1 of transfer of information from neuron to muscle at NMJ
  203. membrane pouches filled with a chemical substance;
  204. neurotransmitter at the NMJ
  205. the nerve impulse causes the vesicles to move toward and fuse with the membrane at the end of the neuron; ACh is released from the vesicle into the space between the neuron and the muscle membrane
    step 2 of transfer of information from neuron to muscle at NMJ
  206. ACh diffuses across the space and binds to the receptor sites on the muscle membrane
    step 3 of transfer of information from neuron to muscle at NMJ
  207. the ACh stimulates the receptors and causes an electrical signal to develop along the muscle membrane. the ACh then unbinds the receptor site and is immediately destroyed by an enzyme that is found within the NMJ near the muscle membrane
    step 4 of transfer of information from neuron to muscle at NMJ
  208. the enzyme that destroys ACh at the NMJ
  209. travels along the muscle membrane and triggers a series of events that result in muscle contraction; stimulates sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium
    electrical signal
  210. floods the sarcomeres thereby causing the thin and thick filaments to slide past one another producing muscle contraction
  211. disease affects the NMJ; caused by damaged receptor sites on the muscle membrane; muscle contraction is impaired and the person experiences muscle weakness; becomes noticeable as low tolerance to exercise; as it progresses person experiences dysapnea because breathing muscles are skeletal muscles
    Myasthenia Gravis
  212. drug classified as a skeletal muscle blocker; used during surgery to promote muscle relaxation; works by blocking the receptor sites on the muscle on the muscle membrane; because the receptor are occupied with the drug ACh cannot bind with the receptor site muscle contraction is prevented; must be mechanically ventilated until effects disappear otherwise patient stops breathing and dies
    Neuromuscular Blockade Caused by Curare
  213. chemical substance that in some way disrupt normal function of the nervous system; produced by certain bacteria
  214. clostridium tetani secretes a neurotoxin that causes excessive firing of the motor nerves; causes excessive release of ACH, overstimulating the muscle membrane that causes severe muscle spasm and tetanic contractions; because jaw muscles are often effected also called
    Tetanus or lockjaw
  215. clostridium botulinum caused when food has been improperly processed and canned; very serious form of food poisoning
  216. small injection of _________ has been used to treat wryneck and wrinkles
  217. excess of ACh causes a state of continuous muscle contraction
    spastic paralysis
  218. a deficiency of ACh causes a state in which the muscles are limp and unable to contract
    flaccid paralysis
  219. a single electrical stimulus is delivered to a muscle fiber, the fiber contracts and then fully relaxes; not useful physiologically
  220. contractile force in the single muscle fiber develops in response to increasing the frequency of electrical stimulation; sustained muscle contraction
  221. allows the whole muscle to vary it's force of contraction
  222. maintains posture
    tetanic muscle contraction
  223. refers to a normal continuous state of partial muscle contraction
    muscle tone or tonus
  224. one group of muscle fibers contracts first; as these fibers begin to relax, a second group contracts; this pattern of contraction and relaxation continues to maintain
    muscle tone
  225. 1) metabolism of creatnine phosphate
    2) Glycolisis
    3) Aerobic metabolism
    ways muscles create energy
  226. is a storage form of energy that can be used to replenish ATP quickly during muscle contraction
    Creatnine Phosphate
  227. series of chemical reactions that break down glucose anaerobically, generating small amounts of ATP; obtained from glucose and glycogen that is stored in skeletal muscle; provides enough energy for additional 30 to 40 seconds of intense muscle activity
  228. in presence of O2, pyruvic acid enters the mitocondria and is broken down completely to CO2, H20, and ATP; generates large amounts of ATP compared with glycolysis
    Aerobic Metabolism
  229. receive supply from O2 from the blood and myoglobin
  230. oxygen carrying protein in muscle fibers
  231. occurs when muscle fiber is not allowed to rest; inability of a muscle to contract following prolonged activity
    muscle fatigue
  232. result of decrease in the release of calcium from the SR, a depletion of nutrients, oxygen,glycogen, and energy stores, such as creatnine phosphate, and a build-up of waste such as lactic acid
    Muscle fatigue
  233. where muscle attaches to bone
  234. attaches to more movable bone
  235. response to overuse; muscle increases in size
  236. undesirable and usually indicates underlying disease; causes heart to overwork
    cardiac hypertrophy
  237. lack of exercise causes muscles to decrease in size
    Disuse Atrophy
  238. develop when nerves are severed
    Denervation Atrophy
  239. when muscle degeneration is part of the aging process; can be delayed when aging person carries out a regular exercise program
    Senile Atrophy
  240. muscle is immobilized for a long time; abnormal formation of fiberous tissue within the muscle; generally freezes the muscle in a flexed position and severely restricts joint mobility
  241. vastus (huge), maximus (large), longus (long), minimus (small), and brevis (short)
    indicate muscle size
  242. deltoid (triangular), latissumus (wide), trapezius (trapezoid), rhomboideus (rhomboid), and teres (round)
    indicate muscle shape
  243. rectus (straight), oblique (diagonal), transverse (across) and circularis (circular)
    indicate direction of muscle fibers
  244. pectoralis (chest), gluteus (buttock) branchi (arm), surpa (above), infra (below) sub (underneath), and lateralis ( lateral)
    indicates location of muscles
  245. biceps (2), triceps (3) and quadriceps (4)
    indicated number of origins
  246. some muscles are named for sites of attachment EX: sternocloidomastoid
    origin and insertion
  247. may be included in the muscle name EX: abductor, adductor, flexor, extensor
    action of a muscle
  248. two catagories of muscles in the head
    facial and chewing muscles
  249. flat muscle that covers the frontal bone; raise s the eyebrows, wrinkles your forehead and gives you a surprised look
  250. sphincter muscle around the eye; closes the eye and insists in winking and blinking;
    orbicularis oculi
  251. ring shaped muscle that controls the size of an opening
  252. muscle has its origin the bony orbit of the eye and inserts in the upper eyelid
    levator palpebrae superioris
  253. spincter muscle that encircles the mouth; closes the mouth,forms word, and purses the lips; sometimes called the kissing muscle
    orbicularis oris
  254. muscle that has its origin on the maxilla and mandible and inserts into the orbicularis oris; used in actions requiring compression of the cheeks, as in sucking, whistling, and playing the trumpet. helps position food for chewing and is important for infant cause its contraction enables baby to suck
  255. smiling muscle; extends from the corner of the  the cheekbone
  256. pouting muscle; originated in the fascia of the shoulder and anterior chest and inserts on the mandible and tissues of the mouth and face; with aging there is muscle tone lose giving the "turkey neck look"
  257. muscles of mastication; all of them are inserted on the mandible and are considered some of the strongest muscles in the body
    chewing muscles
  258. muscle that has origin in the maxilla zygomatic process of the temporal bone and its insertion on the mandible; contraction closes the jaw
  259. fan shaped muscle that extends from the flat portion of the temporal bone (origin) to the mandible (insertion)
  260. muscle extends from the sternum and clavicle to the mastoid process of the temporal bone in the skull; Contraction of both muscles on either side of the neck causes flexion of the head; prime mover of neck flexion
  261. spasm of the sternocleidomastoid muscle can cause; condition characterized by twisting of the neck and rotating of the head to one side
    torticollis or wryneck
  262. 3; act synergistically to flex the neck; have their origin on the cervical vertebrae (C1-C7) and insert on ribs 1 and 2
  263. has it's origins at the base of the occipital bone of the cranium and on the spines of C7 to T4 of the upper vertebral column; inserts at both the scapula and clavicle; contraction allows the head to tilt back(hyerextension);causes lateral flexion of the head and moves the shoulder; works antagonistically with sternocleidomastoid muscle
  264. located in the ribs; origin and insertion on the ribs and are responsible for raising and lowering the rib cage during breathing
    Intercostal muscles
  265. dome shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity;chief muscle of inhalation phase of breathing;
  266. without the contraction and relaxation of the_____________________ breathing cannot occur
    intercostal muscles and diaphram
  267. run up and down; or longitudeinal; extend from sternum to pelvic bone; contraction bends, and flexes the vertebral column
    Rectus Abdominis
  268. make up lateral wall of the abdomen; fibers run obliquely (slanted)
    external obliques
  269. part of the lateral wall of the abdomen; add to the strength provided by external obliques; form a crisscross pattern
    internal obliques
  270. form innermost layer of the abdominal muscles; run horizontally across abdomen
    Transversus abdominus
  271. TIRE
    • T=transverse abdominis
    • I=internal oblique
    • R=rectus abdominis
    • E=external oblique
  272. extends from the sternum to the hip bone; the aponeuroses of the abdominal muscles on opposite sides of the midline of the abdomen form a white line
    linea alba
  273. erector spinae. sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, abdominal muscles, and iliopsoas
    muscles that move the vertabral column
  274. deep in the trapezius and the latissimus dorsi; extends the length of the vertebral column from sacrum to the cranium; forms 2 columns of muscle; causes extension and lateral flexion of the vertebral column and rotaion of the head; assists in maintenance of erect posture
    erector spinae
Card Set