Comparative Anatomy

  1. Earthworm integumentary
    Skin is one cell layer with mucus gland
  2. Earthworm skeletal
    No bones - hydrostatic support
  3. Earthworm muscular
    Longitudinal and circular muscles; each segments muscles are independant of the other segments
  4. Earthworm urinary
    A pair of nephrida per segment
  5. Earthworm respiratory
    Through skin
  6. Earthworm circulatory
    Closed, using hemoglobin as oxygen carriers - aortic arches are pumps
  7. Earthworm nervous
    Dorsal brains; ventral nerve cord, with ganglia in each segment
  8. Earthworm endocrine
    Hormones secreted by nervous system
  9. Earthworm reproductive
    Male and female parts both present
  10. Earthworm digestive
    Mouth, pharynx, esophogus, crop, gizzard, intestine, anus
  11. Fish respiratory
    Gills used for gas exchange
  12. Fish circulatory
    2-chambered heart (no separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated)
  13. Fish reproductive
    Usually externally fertilized
  14. Fish excretes nitrogen with...?
  15. Human excretes nitrogen with...?
  16. Worm excretes nitrogen with...?
  17. Fish transports nutrients with...?
    Two chambered heart
  18. Human transports nutrients with...?
    Four chambered heart
  19. Worm transports nutrients with...?
    Aortic arches
  20. Fish reproductive system is...?
    Mostly external
  21. Human reproduction is...?
  22. Worm reproduction is...?
    Hermaphrodites (asexual)
  23. Fish regulate body temperature...?
    Externally (mostly)
  24. Humans regulate body temperature...?
  25. Worms regulate body temperature...?
  26. Location: epithelial tissue
    Lines most body surfaces, protects tissues from dehydration
  27. Location: cardiac muscle
    Involuntary muscle found in the heart, continuously pulsing to pump blood through the body.
  28. Location: smooth muscle
    Involuntary muscle that lines the walls of blood vessels and hollow organs
  29. Location: connective tissue
    Includes fat, tendons, cartilage, bone, and blood; supports, protects, and insulates the body
  30. Location: neurotransmitter
    In the nerves; triggered by a nerve impulse at an axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron as part of the signal (?)
  31. Function: kidney
    Filter fluid from the blood, then concentrate the metabolic wastes and excrete them as concentrated urine; also regulate the water content of the body
  32. Function: lungs
    Oxygen from the air is exchanged with CO2 from the blood
  33. Function: Skin
    Protects the body from injury, provides the first line of defense against disease, helps regulate body temperature, and prevents the body from drying our through evaporation.
  34. Function: Intestines
    Act as holding places for food, as well as acts as part of the digestion process (?)
  35. Function: Liver
    Controls blood sugar, modifies amino acids, monitors the production of cholesterol, and detoxifies poisons
  36. Function: Pancreas
    Secretes hormones for controlling blood sugar
  37. Function: Heart
    Pump blood throughout the body
  38. Purpose: Digestive
    Extracts and absorbs nutrients from food; removes wastes; maintains water and chemical balances
  39. Purpose: Circulatory
    Transport nutrients, wastes, hormones, and gases
  40. Purpose: Lymphatic
    Collect extracellular fluid and return it to the blood
  41. Purpose: Skeletal
    Protects and supports the body and organs; interacts with skeletal muscles, produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
  42. Purpose: Endocrine
    Regulates body temperature, metabolism, development, and reproduction; maintains homeostasis; regulates other organ systems; hormones
  43. Purpose: Reproductive
    Produces gametes and offspring
  44. Purpose: Integumentary
    Protects against injury, infection, and fluid loss; helps regulate body temperature
  45. Purpose: Respiratory
    Moves air into and out of lungs; controls gas exchange between blood and lungs
Card Set
Comparative Anatomy
Worm, fish, and human comparative anatomy and body systems.