Axial Skeleton

  1. What comprises the axial skeleton?
    Skull, thoracic cage, vertebral column, supplemental cartilages
  2. Fxns of vertebral column (24 vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)
    • provides column of support
    • transfers weight to lower limbs
    • protects spinal column
    • helps maintain upright position
  3. Order or spinal curves
    (from head to coccyx)
    • Cervical
    • Thoracic
    • Lumbar
    • Sacral
  4. Primary spinal curves
    • Thoracic- for thoracic organs
    • Sacral- for abdominopelvic organs
    • Forms "C" curve before birth
  5. Secondary spinal curves
    • Cervical- develops as infant balances head on vertebrae
    • Lumbar- develops with ability to stand and balance trunk over limbs
    • Importance- develop with balance
  6. Major components of vertebra
    • Articular processes
    • Vertebral body
    • Vertebral arch
    • Vertebral foramen
  7. Parts of vertebral arch
    spinous process, L&R laminae, transverse process, pedicles

    insert pic from lecture
  8. Cervical vertebrae char
    • smallest of vertebral column
    • large vertebral foramen
    • also might have split or bifid spinous process
  9. First 2 cervical vertebra are unique!
    • Atlas- (C1) no spinous process, no vertebral body, large round vertebral foramen
    • Axis- (C2) prominent dens or odontoid process
    • Thinking of a globe-> Axis holds atlas
  10. Thoracic vertebrae char
    • moving inferiorly, body of each is more robust due to bearing of increasing weight
    • distinctive heart shaped vertebral body
    • smaller vertebral foramen
    • long, slender, inferiorly pointing spinous process
  11. Lumbar vertebrae char
    • largest and transmit most weight
    • no costal facets (b/c no ribs at this level)
    • slender transverse processes
    • triangular vertebral foramen
  12. Sacrum
    • part of primary curve
    • 5 fused vertebrae, triangular shaped
    • completely fused by 30 yrs old
  13. Coccyx
    • part of primary sacral curve
    • 3-5 fused vertebrae
    • begin fusing at age 2->18ish
Card Set
Axial Skeleton
Typically 80 bones including skull, thoracic cage, vertebral column, various bones and cartilages