1. Culture
    the langualge, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next
  2. Material Culture
    the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as thire art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing and jewelry
  3. Nonmaterial Culture
    (also called Sybolic Culture) a group's ways of thinking (including it's beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)
  4. Culture Shock
    the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and coan no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
  5. Ethnocentrism
    the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evalutaion of their values, norms, and behaviors
  6. Culture Relativism
    not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
  7. Symbolic Culture
    another term for nonmaterial culture
  8. Symbol
    something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others
  9. Gestures
    the ways in whick people use their bodies to communicate with one another
  10. Language
    a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought
  11. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    Edward Sapir's and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
  12. Values
    the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
  13. Norms
    expectations, or rules of behavior, that reflect and enforce values
  14. Sanctions
    expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
  15. Positive Sanction
    a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize
  16. Negative Sanction
    an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution
  17. Folkways
    norms that are not strictly enforced
  18. Mores
    norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group
  19. Taboo
    a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated
  20. Subculture
    the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world
  21. Counterculture
    a group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
  22. Pluralistic Society
    a society made up of many different groups
  23. Value Cluster
    values that together form a larger whole
  24. Values Contradiction
    values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other
  25. Ideal Culture
    the ideal values and norms of a people; the goals held out for them
  26. Real Culture
    the norms and values that people actually follow
  27. Cultural Universal
    a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group
  28. Sociobiology
    a framework of thought that views human behavior as the result of natural selection and considers biological factors to be the fundamental cause of human behavior
  29. Technology
    in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
  30. New Technology
    the emerging technologies of an era that have significant impact on social life
  31. Cultural Lag
    Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
  32. Cultural Diffusion
    the spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another
  33. Cultural Leveling
    the process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by wich U.S. culture is being exported and diffused into other nations
Card Set
Sociology 101 Chapter 2 Flashcards