4. Labelling Theory
Labelling theorists main angle..
Social Construction of Crime
Seven Topics under Labelling
1. Who Labels
2. Who Gets labelled
3. Effects of Labelling
4. Deviance Amplification Spiral
5. Criminal Justice Policy
6. Re-integrative Shaming
Labelling theorists on WHO LABELS and what they said.
1. Becker - 'Moral Entrepreneurs' lead moral crusade which creates new group of outsiders and expands social control agencies - they campaign for change to expand their own power.
2. B Platt - 'Juvenile delinquency' - created by upper class Victorian moral entrepreneurs
Labelling theorists of WHO GETS LABELLED...
1. Paliavin and Briar
Piliavin and Briar say...
It's about their appearances, background and biography
1. Off. stats are invalid - they should be a topic, not a resource.
a) Typifications lead police to focus on certain types
b) Probation officers less likely to support non-custodial sentences for juveniles from broken homes
c) Justice is negotiable for middle class.
Effects of Labelling... two key terms.
1. Self Fulfilling Prophecy
2. Primary and Secondary deviance
Primary and Secondary Deviance
Sociologists? and what they said.
- defined Primary ('moment of madness') and Secondary Deviance (label leads to 'master status' -sfprophecy. leads to 'Deviant Career')
Jock Young -
hippies - primary converted to secondary because of social control processes.
3. Downes and Rock - Not everyone pursues a deviant career after labelling
Deviancy Amplification Spiral
'Folk Devils and Moral Panics' - Mods and Rockers
1. Media and Press exaggeration led to growing public concern
2. Moral entrepreneurs called for crackdown
3. Demonised them as 'folk devils'
4. Caused further marginalisation resulting in more deviance
Labelling and Criminal Justice Policy
Re-labelling of status offences and harsher penalties leads to secondary deviance
two types of shaming and how they work?
1. Disintegrative shaming - labels them as bad and they are excluded from society
2. Reintegrative Shaming - Labels the act, not the person and avoids secondary deviance
4 key points
2. Gives offender a victim status
3. Why primary deviance?
4. Ignores source of power and labels
4. Labelling Theory