endocrine and special senses

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  1. neural tunic
    Retina only
  2. Vascular Tunic
    • Choroid - Lines the interior
    • portion of the sclera.  Contains blood supply. It is inbetween the sclera
    • and the retina.
    • Ciliary Body – Secretes the aqueous
    • humor and smooth muscle that attaches to the lens for focusing of light
    • Lens - Focuses light on
    • retina.
    • Iris - Colored portion of
    • the eye forming the pupil.

    Pupil - Opening in the iris through which light goes into eye.
  3. Order of tear flow
    • lacrimal gland
    • lacrimal ducts
    • superor or inferior lacrimal canal
    • lacrimal sac
    • nasolacrimal duct
    • nasal cavity
  4. Gustation
    Sense of taste.

    • o   Dissolved chemicals in the saliva stimulate
    • the taste buds that in turn send an action potential to the facial and
    • glossopharyngeal nerve to the brain
  5. Optic Chiasma
    The partial crossover of fiber of the optic nerves
  6. Fibrous Tunic
    • Cornea -
    • Admits and refracts light. It is the clear exterior "window" of the
    • eye.
    • Sclera -
    • Provides shape and protects the eye,  It is the white of the eye.
    • Conjunctiva - Epithelial
    • protective layer covering the anterior eye ball and eye lids. It can become
    • infected...."pink eye".
  7. Middle Ear
    • Eustachian (Auditory) Tube Equilizes pressure between the inner
    • ear and the outside, ie scuba diving and in flying

    • Auditory Ossicles
    • transmitts and amplifies sound from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea

    • Oval
    • Window Attachement of the stapes
  8. Bony Labyrinth
    o   Vestibule Area for static equilibrium

    o   Semicircular Canals Area for dynamic equilibrium

    o   Cochlea Converting sound to an action potential
  9. Membranous Labyrinth
    • Ampulla This "houses" the cupula in the
    • semicircular cannals. The cupula has the nerve endings to generate the action
    • potential for dynamic equilibrium

    •    Round Window Area that allows for the dissipation of sound
    • waves out of the organ of corti, please refer to the presentaiton

    •  Organ of Corti Sense organ that generates the action potential
    • inside the cochlea
  10. Sound Waves
    • o   enter the auricle and down the auditory canal
    • hitting the tympanic membrane.  The sound wave is then converted to a
    • mechanical wave.  This is then transmitted and amplified by the auditory
    • ossicles (in order the malleus, incus, and stapes) to the oval window where the
    • mechanical wave is then converted to a fluid pressure.
  11. Fluid Pressure
    • is a fluid wave that is transmitted into the chochlea where the wave
    • stimulates the organ of corti and then converts the fluid wave to an action
    • potential, transmitted down the chochlear branch of the vestibulochochlear
    • (VIII) to the temporal lobe for interpretation
  12. Static Equilibrium
    • Maculae in the saccule
    • and utricle (vestibule)

    •   Hair and Supporting
    • Cells

      Otolithic Membrane

    Vestibular Branch
  13. Dynamic Equilibrium
    • semicircular cannas
    •   Crista - In the hair cells and supporting cells.

      Cupula - Projection of gelatinous material.
  14. Hormone Action
    Target Cells and Hormone Receptors
  15. Target Cells
    the cell that will be effected by a hormone
  16. Hormone Receptors
    usually protein on the cell membrane that binds to the hormone
  17. 1 Mechanisms of Hormone
    • §  Action of Lipid-Soluble Hormones diffuse
    • through the cell membrane and alter the expression of genes of the nucleus
  18. 2   Mechanisms of Hormone
    • §  Action of Water-Soluble Hormones binds to the
    • target cells receptors, then converts ATP to cAMP, activates enzymes in the
    • cell to alter its physiology
  19. First messenger 
    Second Messenger
    • 1 the hormone
    • 2 cAMP
  20. o   Control of Hormone
    Signals from the nervous system

     Chemical changes in the blood

    Other hormones
  21. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
    stimulates the thyroid gland to release it hormones (thyroxine)
  22. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing
    • FSH - development of
    • ovarian follicle, release estrogens

    • LH - ovulation, release
    • estrogen


    • FSH – sperm production
    • andtestosterone production

    • LH-
    • acts synergistically with FSH and assists in sperm production and testosterone
    • production.  In males LH can be known as interstitial cell-stimulating
    • hormone (ICSH)
  23. Female
    • FSH - development of
    • ovarian follicle, release estrogens

    • LH - ovulation, release
    • estrogen
  24. Male
    • FSH – sperm production
    • and testosterone production

    • LH-
    • acts synergistically with FSH and assists in sperm production and testosterone
    • production.  In males LH can be known as interstitial cell-stimulating
    • hormone (ICSH).
  25. Prolactin
    milk production
  26. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
    • release of hormones from the adrenal cortex, causing the release of
    • glucocorticoids
  27. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
    unknown function
  28. Posterior Pituitary Hormones
    • Oxytocin
    • Antidiuretic Hormone
  29. oxytocin
    • contraction of the uterus 
    • milk ejection
  30. antidiuretic hormone
    causes kidneys to retain water
  31. Thyroid Gland
    • Thyroxine
    • generalized increase in metabolic activity of most cells
  32. Calcitonin
    • increases the Ca++ in bone by inhibiting the action of Osteoclasts, this
    • will decrease the blood levels of Ca++
  33. Parathyroid Glands
    • Parathyroid Hormone increases the activity of the action of osteoclasts
    • to release calcium and phosphates into the blood and allows the kidneys release
    • more phosphates  them into the urine
  34. Pancreas
    • Glucagon-causes the liver to release glucose (Alpha cells of the islets of
    • Langerhans) 

    • Insulin-causes muscle and fat cells to absorb blood glucose (Beta cells of the
    • islets of langerhans)
  35. Adrenal Glands
    • Adrenal Cortex
    • Adrenal Medulla
  36. What are the Adrenal Cortex hormones
    • Mineralocorticoids
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Androgens
  37. Mineralocoticoids
    regulation of sodium and potassium by influencing the kidney
  38. Glucocorticoid
    • causes the breakdown of proteins and fats as well as the conversion of
    • lactic acid to form glucose for energy.  The also tend to inhibit the
    • immune system
  39. Androgens
    in both male and females, weak in nature
  40. Adrenal Medulla Hormones
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine

    (fight or flight response)
  41. Ovaries
    • Estrogen and Progesterone- both are involved in secondary sex
    • characteristics and regulation of the menstrual cycle.

    • Relaxin - relaxes ligaments for birth, “loosens” the
    • pelvis
  42. Testes
    • Testosterone – secondary sex characteristic, production of
    • sperm
  43. Pineal Glands
    • secrete melatonin involved in “sleepiness”.  It helps to set the
    • body’s “biological clock”
Card Set
endocrine and special senses
endocrine and special senses
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