# Echo 530

 What is systolic function affected by? Preload (LVED pressure)Afterload (Resistance heart must pump against)(Force ventricles face when contracting in systole)Intrinsic Ventricular Contractility (intensity myocardium in active state) Heart Rate How do you calculate Fractional Shortening and what is the normal range? What kind of a measurement is it? LVEDd - LVEDs / LVEDd = 20-42% dimensional How do you calculate Ejection Fraction? What is the normal range? What type of measurement is it? LVEDd3 - LVEDs3 / LVEDd3 = 60-85% Volumetric measurement When using Simpson's to evaluate systolic function, what are you really calculating? What measurements do you use for Simpson's? Ejection fraction A4 Length & DiameterA2 Diameter Where would you measure for Circumferential Fiber Shortening? vcf = mean circumferences / second. What is the formula? M-Mode AO valve (LVET) vcf = LVEDd - LVEDs / (LVEDd)(LVET) CO = ? CO =(d2)(0.785)(TVI)(HR) / 1000 = L/min CSA= d2 0.785SV = (CSA)(TVI) TVI = Time Velocity Integral = ? Stroke distance in cm How do you calculate cardiac index? CO / BSA What is the normal CO? 4-8L/min EPSS means? Measured in what mode? Normal measurement is? E Point Septal SeparationM-mode2-7mm (AO & LA appear flat when decreased CO) LV Mass = ? (muscle volume)(density) = 1.04g/ml Wall Stress is directly related to ventricular systolic pressure & _ _ _ _ _ _. Wall Stress is indirectly related to wall _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _? radiusthickness Wall Stress = WS = Force exerted on object / CSA RWT=2PWT / LVID Wall STRAIN is the _ _ _ _ _ applied to solid object causing deformation OR applied to liquid object causing flow strain. What modality would we use to assess this? ForceTissue Doppler Change P / Change T (time interval between 2 arbitrary points) What do we use this to assess? What jet do we use to measure this? What time integral do we use to assess this? What is a normal measurement? Time it takes to generate 32mmHgMRMR of 1-3m/s = ?change T 0.027 sec (27ms) What is the doppler derived index of myocardial performance? Myocardial Index What is the continuity equation for: MVA AVA ERO 2pi r2(LVOTvel) / MV vel OR AO vel vs aliasing vel / MR vel To measure global ventricular function we use IMP. What does IMP stand for? Index Myocardial Performance IMP = ? What is a normal IMP=? A-B / B A=HolosystolicB=Systolic ejection time IMP=<0.4 Diastolic dysfunction reflects ventricular _________________, not disease specifically physiology Define: Diastole Interval of AV closure to MV closure What does the E on MV waveform represent? Early rapid filling (Active)-early diastole-rate of myocardium relaxation & elastic recoil (suction) What does the A represent on MV waveform? Passive Forcelate diastolechamber compliance & stiffness What are 3 basic causes of diastolic dysfunction? 1. Diseases affecting myocardium2. Extrinsic - Pericardial disease3. CAD (dd with systolic dysfunction) What comes secondary to diseases affecting the myocardium? LVH d/t HTNHypertrophic CMORestrictive CMO Ischemic Disease Name the diastolic parameters. (5) NormalAbnormal RelaxationPseudonormalizationRestrictive filling (reversible)Restrictive filling (irreversible) What is the formula for ventricular compliance? Stiffness? Compliance = change volume / change pressure Stiffness = change pressure / change volume What is an advantage of using tissue doppler? E velocities are relatively unaffected by preload Normal E/A Ratio? Relax abn? Restrictive R ? >1<1 >2 Normal IVRT? relax abn IVRT? Restrictive R ? 70>110 <60 Normal decel time? abnormal relax ? Restrictive R? 200 ms>240<150 normal E wave? abnorm relax? Restrictive R? .85 m/s< .5 m/s>1.2 m/s Normal A wave? abnormal relax? Restrictive R? .55 m/s<.8 m/s<.3 m/s Restrictive MV "A" wave duration is ____________________ PV "a" duration time less than What can the valsalve manouver do when assessing diastolic dysfunction? unmask pseudonormalization When you line up MV to PV, what letters occur at same time? E to S A to A MVA= _______/_______ 220/pht pht=? dt (.29) Normal pht = _______msec severe ? 30-60>220msec MVA normal = __________? Severe = ? >2.5cm2<1.0cm2 With a stiff, noncompliant MV would the pht increase/decrease? decrease What is the best quantification of MR? doppler What does vena contracta mean? Flow convergence zone (<0.3mm) Pulmonary Regurgitation PAEDP = 4V2+RAP WMSI= 1- 2 3 4 5 normalhypokineticakineticdyskineticaneurismal dP/dT = 32/dT dT= time period between 1 & 3m/s Authorlstaal1 ID22338 Card SetEcho 530 DescriptionSystolic & Diastolic Function Updated2010-06-06T22:36:40Z Show Answers