gisslen 10

  1. what percentage of meat is water
  2. what percent of muscle tissue is protein?
    abiyt 20%
  3. what percent of muscle tissue is fat?
    about 5%
  4. why is fat desireable?
    • juiciness from the marbling
    • tenderness - marbling separates muscle fibers
    • flavor - a fatter piece of meat tastes meatier
  5. carbohydrates in meat
    only a small amount, but important for the Maillard reaction and browning
  6. what is the structure of meat?
    meat is comprised of muscle fibers (in bundles) and connective tissue
  7. which meats have a lot of connective tissue?
    • 1. muscles that are used a lot
    • 2. older animals
  8. what kinds of connective tissue are there?
    • 1. collagen
    • 2. elastin
  9. what breaks down collagen?
    • long slow cooking in the presence of moisture turns collagen into gelatin and water
    • acids dissolve collagen
    • enzymes break down tissues as meat ages
    • tenderizers are enzymes that are added to meat
  10. what breaks down elastin?
    nothing; it must be removed or mechanically breaking up the fibers
  11. what is inspection
    inspection is a guarantee of wholesomeness, not of quality or tenderness. It means that the animal was not diseased and the meat is clean and fit for human consumption.

    Inspection is required by US law. Done by the USDA. Passing is indicated by a round stamp.
  12. what is grading?
    • grading is a designation of quality
    • grade is indicated by a shield stamp
    • grading is not required by law
    • based on texture, firmness, and color of lean meat, the age of the animal, and the marbling
  13. what is yield grading?
    • applies to beef and lamb
    • a measure of how much usable meat in proportion to fat they have. Meatiest grade is 1. Fattest grade is 5.

    Pork is graded 1 to 4, but is usually sold already cut and trimmed.
  14. list the beef grades
    • prime
    • choice
    • select
    • standard
    • commercial
    • utility
    • cutter
    • canner
  15. list the veal grades
    • prime
    • choice
    • good
    • standard
    • utility
    • cull
  16. list the lamb grades
    • prime
    • choice
    • good
    • utility
    • cull
  17. list the pork grades
    pork used in food service is not graded
  18. what is green meat
    green meat is meat which has not had enough time to soften after slaughter and rigor mortis. It is tough and relatively flavorless.
  19. what is meat aging?
    enzyme action continues in muscle tissue even after greening is done. Aging tenderizes the flesh and develops flavor. Generally done by holding meats under controlled cool conditions.

    beef and lamb can be aged because their fat protects the carcasses from drying and bacteria. veal has not fat and is not aged. Pork does not need to be aged.
  20. what are the ways to age?
    • wet aging
    • dry aging
  21. what is wet aging
    meat aged in vacuum packaging. this keeps the meat wet during aging and protects the meat from mold and bacteria and weight loss.

    • must be refridgerated.
    • vacuum packed meats lose more weight during cooking than dry aged meats
  22. what is dry aging
    • dry aged meats are not packaged or wrapped during aging, and are exposed to air on all sides under controlled conditions.
    • may lose 20% of weight due to drying
    • more expensive process - space, time, trim losses
  23. what is IMPS?
    Institution Meat Purchase Specifications
  24. what is a carcass?
    • the whole animal, minus entrails, head, feet, and hide
    • pork comes with feet and hide
    • requires skill and labor to break down
  25. how is beef split?
    through the backbone into sides. Sides are cut between the 12th and 13th rib to create the forequarter and the hindquarter.
  26. how is veal split?
    veal is divided in half between the 11th and 12th ribs to create the foresaddle and the hindsaddle.
  27. how is lamb split?
    lamb is cut between the 12th and 13th rib or after the 13th rib to create the foresaddle and the hindsaddle
  28. how is pork split?
    pork is cut directly into primal cuts
  29. what is a primal cut?
    primal cuts are the primary divisions of quarters, foresaddles, hindsaddles, and carcasses

    • they are small enough to be manageable in many food service kitchens
    • they are still large enough to allow for a variety of cuts for different uses or needs
    • are easier to utlized completely than quarters or halves
  30. what is fabrication?
    fabrication is the dividing of primal cuts into smaller cuts and trimming
  31. what are the IMPS/NAMP meat categories?
    • 100 fresh beef
    • 200 fresh lamb and mutton
    • 300 fresh veal and calf
    • 400 fresh pork
    • 500 cured, cured and smoked, and cooked pork products
    • 600 cured, dried, and smoked beef products
    • 700 variety meats and edible by-products
    • 800 sausage products
    • 11 fresh goat
  32. what are the beef primal cuts?
    • chuck
    • rib
    • loin (short loin and sirloin)
    • round
    • shank
    • brisket
    • short plate
    • flank
  33. what are the veal primal cuts?
    • shoulder
    • rib
    • loin
    • sirloin
    • leg (round)
    • shank
    • breast
    • flank
  34. what are the lamb primal cuts?
    • neck
    • shoulder
    • rib
    • loin
    • sirloin
    • leg
    • foreshank
    • hindshank
    • breast
    • flank
  35. what are the pork primal cuts?
    • jowl
    • boston butt
    • loin
    • clear plate / fat back
    • ham
    • foot
    • spareribs
    • picnic shoulder
  36. why should you know bone structure?
    • 1. to help identify meat cuts
    • 2. for boning and cutting meats
    • 3. for carving meats
  37. what are the major cuts in a beef chuck?
    • shoulder clod
    • triangle
    • boneless inside chuck
    • chuck tender
    • chuck short ribs
    • cubed steaks
    • stew meat
    • ground chuck

    use moist heat
  38. what are the major cuts in a beef brisket?
    • boneless brisket and corned beef brisket
    • ground beef

    use moist heat
  39. what are the major cuts in a beef shank?
    • stew meat
    • ground beef

    use moist heat
  40. what are the major cuts in a beef rib?
    • rib roasts (prime rib)
    • rib steaks
    • short ribs

    use moist heat
  41. what are the major cuts in a beef full loin?
    full tenderloin

    use dry heat
  42. what are the major cuts in a beef short loin?
    • club steaks
    • T-bone steaks
    • porterhouse steaks
    • strip loin
    • strip loin steaks
    • short tenderloin

    use dry heat
  43. what are the major cuts in a beef sirloin?
    • top sirloin butt
    • bottom sirloin butt
    • butt tenderloin

    use dry heat
  44. what are the major cuts in a beef flank?
    • flank steak
    • ground beef

    use moist heat (except flank steak cooked as London broil)
  45. what are the major cuts in a beef round?
    • knuckle (sirloin tip)
    • inside (top) round
    • outside (bottom) round
    • eye of round (part of outside round)
    • rump
    • hind shank

    can use both moist and dry heat
  46. What are the major cuts in a lamb shoulder?
    • shoulder roasts
    • shoulder chops
    • stew meat
    • ground lamb

    can use both moist and dry heat
  47. what are the major cuts in a lamb breast and shank?
    • riblets
    • breast
    • stew meat
    • ground lamb

    use moist heat
  48. what are the major cuts in a lamb hotel rack?
    • rib roasts (rack)
    • crown roast
    • ribs chops

    use dry heat
  49. what are the major cuts in a lamb loin?
    • loin roast
    • loin chops

    use dry heat
  50. what are the major cuts in a lamb leg?
    • leg roast
    • leg chops
    • sirloin chops
    • shank
  51. what are the major cuts in a veal shoulder?
    • shoulder roasts
    • shoulder chops
    • shoulder clod steaks
    • cubed steaks
    • stew meat
    • ground veal

    can use both moist and dry heat
  52. what are the major cuts in a veal breast?
    • boneless breast
    • cubed steaks
    • ground veal

    use moist heat
  53. what are the major cuts in a veal shank?
    shank cross-cuts

    use moist heat
  54. what are the major cuts in a veal hotel rack?
    • rib roast
    • rib chops

    can use both moist and dry heat
  55. what are the major cuts in a veal loin?
    • saddle (loin roast)
    • loin chops

    can use moist and dry heat
  56. what are the major cuts in a veal leg?
    • leg roast
    • scaloppine or cutlets
    • shank cross-cut (osso buco)

    use moist heat
  57. what are the major cuts in a pork shoulder picnic?
    • fresh and smoked picnic
    • hocks
    • ground pork
    • sausage meat

    use moist heat
  58. what are the major cuts in a pork boston butt?
    • butt steaks
    • shoulder roasts
    • daisy (smoked)
    • ground pork
    • sausage meat

    can use both dry and moist heat
  59. what are the major cuts in a pork loin?
    • loin roast
    • loin and rib chops
    • boneless loin
    • country-style ribs
    • canadian-style bacon (smoked)

    can use both dry and moist heat
  60. what are the major cuts in a pork ham?
    • fresh ham
    • smoked ham
    • ham steaks

    can use both moist and dry heat
  61. what are the major cuts in a pork belly?

    can use both moist and dry heat
  62. what are the major cuts in pork spare ribs?

    use moist heat
  63. what are the major cuts in pork fatback and clear plate?
    • fresh and salt fatback
    • salt pork
    • lard
  64. what are the major cuts in a pork jowl?
    jowl bacon

    can use both moist and dry heat
  65. what are the major cuts in pork feet?
    no specific cut

    use moist heat
  66. how to decide which meat cuts to purchase
    • 1. meat cutting skill of your staff
    • 2. how much work and storage space is available
    • 3. can you use all the cuts and trim
    • 4. best cost per portion after figuring in labor costs
  67. what needs to be in your specifications?
    • the item name
    • IMPS/NAMPS number
    • grade
    • weight range
    • state of refrigeration
    • fat limitations
  68. what is meat irradiation
    the process of exposing foods to radiation to kill bacteria, parasites and other potentially harmful organisms
  69. how does heat affect tenderness?1.
    • 1. tenderizes connective tissue if moisture is present and cooking is slow
    • 2. toughens protein
  70. describe low-heat cooking
    • 1. high heat toughens and shrinks protien and results in moisture loss. Low heat should be used for moist cooking.
    • 2. broiling is quick enough for some meats
    • 3. roasts cooked at low temperatures have better yields than those at high heat
    • 4. liquid and steam are better conductors of heat: they penetrate faster. if moist cooking, simmer, not boil
  71. when should you use dry heat methods?
    on tender cuts except for long roasting
  72. how do you cook rib and loin cuts?
    they are the most tender cuts

    beef and lamb: roast, broil, grill

    veal and pork: occasionally braised to preserve juices; can saute or pan-fry veal chops
  73. how to cook a leg or round
    beef - used mostly for braising. Not very tender and very lean. if roasted, roast rare; inside (top) round is preferred.

    veal, lamb pork - tender enough to roast.
  74. how to cook a chuck or shoulder
    beef - tougher cut that is usually braised.

    veal, lamb, pork - most often braised, but yound enough to be roasted or cut into chops for broiling. do not produce attractive slices
  75. how to cook shanks, breast, brisket, and flank
    • these are the least tender cuts, almost always cooked with moist heat.
    • desireable for braising and simmering

    beef flank steaks can be broiled if they are cooked rare and cut into thin slices
  76. how to cook ground meat, cubed steaks, and stew meat
    can come from any primal cut. usually made from trimmings.

    ground and cubed can be cooked dry or moist because they have been mechanically tenderized

    stew meat si cooked with moist heat
  77. what other factors influence choice of cooking methods?
    • 1. fat content
    • 2. developing flavor
    • 3. preventing excessive shrinkage and nutrient loss
    • 4. developing appearance

    will often need to compromise
  78. what are the methods of adding fat to meat
    • larding -- injecting solid fat into the meat
    • barding - tying a slice o' fat over meats
    • basting - pouring liquid fats over the meat
  79. searing and sealing
    don't work.

    • searing does not prevent moisture loss
    • sealing via boiling may prevent moisture moisture loss, but will not prevent shrinkage
  80. how is doneness defined for dry heat
    when proteins have reached the desired degree of coagulation as indicated by internal temperature
  81. how is doneness defined for moist heat
    when connective tissues have broken down enough for the meat to be palatable. Almost always "well done"
  82. what are degrees of doneness in dry-heat cooking
    • For red meats:
    • rare - thin layer of cooked (gray) meat,; red interior
    • medium - thicker area of grey, pink interior
    • well done" gray throughout

    • white meat:
    • changes to white or off-white
    • veal and pork are generally cooked until well done
  83. how do you test doneness
    • color change cannot be used
    • juice color is also not reliable

    the most accurate method is temping

    • beef (rare, medium, well): 130, 140-145, 160
    • lamb 130, 145, 160
    • veal --, 145-150, 160
    • pork --, --, 165-170
  84. what is carry-over cooking?
    internal temperature continues to rise after the meat is removed from teh heat source.

    • small cuts may rise 5 degrees; large roasts may rise as much as 25 degrees
    • usual range is 10 to 15 degrees

    remove roasts from the oven when internal temperature is 10 to 15 degrees lower than desired final internal temperature.
  85. resting
    meats should rest after cooking to allow proteins to relax and carry-over cooking to process

    let roasts stand 15 to 30 minutes before slicing.
  86. determining doneness by touch
    small size of steaks and chops makes thermometers impractical. a skilled cook depends on his/her sense of touch
  87. determining doneness in moist heat cooking
    meat cooked by moist heat is almost always well done
  88. what factors influence the juiciness of meat
    • 1. internal fat more= jucier
    • 2. gelatin more=juicier
    • 3. protein coagulation less = juicier
  89. what are variety meats?
    • also known as offal
    • organs and glands that don't form a part of the dressed carcass of meat

    • glandular meats:
    • liver
    • kidneys
    • sweetbreads
    • brains

    • muscle meats:
    • heart
    • tongue
    • tripe
    • oxtails
  90. culinary info on liver
    • calf's liver is prized because it is tender and delicate in flavor
    • usually pan-fried, sauteed or broiled

    beef liver is darker, stronger in flavor, and tougher. also pan fried, broiled, braised

    pork liver is available, generally used in pates and sausages
  91. culinary info on kidneys
    • veal and lamb are most popular
    • usually sauteed and broiled
    • beef kidneys are tougher and more strongly flavored - often braised
    • pork livers are not often used
  92. what are sweetbreads
    • sweetbreads are the thymus glands of calves and young beef animals (teh gland disappears as the animal ages)
    • considered a delicasy
    • mild in flavor, delicate in texture
    • usually braised or breaded and sauteed in butter
  93. culinary info brains
    • delicate in flavor and texture
    • calf brains are most usually used
    • very perishable
    • very fragile
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gisslen 10
culinary gisslen chapter 10