bacterial diseases of the blood and lymphatics
- bubonic plague
- lyme disease
viral infections of the blood and lymphatics
- infectious mononucleosis
- ebola hemorrhagic fever
- dengue fever
- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
protozoal infections of the blood and lymphatics
helminthis infections of the blood and lymphatics
inflammation of endocardium (lining); includes valve
cause: staph aureus, strep pneumoniae, strep pyogenes, neisseria gonorrhoeae
preceded by valve abnormality or congenital heart defect that makes patient prone to colonization
symptoms of endocarditis
fever, anemia, abnormal heart beat, may mimic heart attack, petechiae septicemia
Micro organisms are multiplying in blood
cause of septicemia
many types of MO's
transmission of septicemia
infection that spreads; IV or surgery
symptoms of septicemia
fever, chills, GI symptoms, change respiration rate, low BP
What if the septicemia is a gram - infection?
it could lead to endotoxic shock due to LPS
treatment for septicemia
dependent on type of micro organism
What is the cause of turlaremia?
- francisella tularensis
- gram - coccobacillus
- common in squirrels, rabbits, deer, and muskrats
transmission for turlaremia?
contact broken skin or mucous membranes when handling infected wildlife or tick bite
incubation for tularemia?
3 day to several weeks
symptoms for tularemia?
- ulcer at the point of entry
- infection spreads to lymph nodes (enlarged and tender)
- most cases self limiting
treatment and vaccine for tularemia?
- live attenuated vaccine
Bang's disease or undullant fever
cause of brucellosis?
- brucella abortus
- brucella suisis
- intracellular parasite of macrophage
transmission of brucellosis
- enter mucous membrane, break in skin or ingestion of infected
- unpasteurized milk
- animals passed through milk or transplacental (cause abortion)
symptoms of brucellosis?
- undulant (wave like) fever (LPS)
- general malaise, enlarged lymph nodes, lesions on liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidneys, uterus
- all blood rich organs
- self limiting in about 2 months
treatment for brucellosis?
vaccine for brucellosis?
given to livestock and pets
black death or pestilence
cause of bubonic plague
- gram - bacillus
- bipolar stain
- pathogen has capsule and plasminogen activator
transmission of bubonic plague
- human bitten by a rat flea (vector)
- fleas has blocked esophagus so it regurgitates meal
incubation of bubonic plague
- 2-8 days
- bacteria enter lymph
- buboes (enlarged lymph nodes)
symptoms of bubonic plague?
- high fever, buboes, skin hemorrhaging (blue/black color to skin), septicemic plague (in blood)
- travels to lungs = pnemonic plague (spreads with resp. droplets)
- death in 2-4 days
treatment for bubonic plague?
cause for lyme disease?
- borrelia burgdorferi
vector for lyme disease?
- deer tick (ixodes scapularis)
- nymph like to feed on humans
- adult ticks reproduce in deer
transmission of lyme disease?
an infected tick bite
incubation for lyme disease?
symptoms for lyme disease?
- 3 stages
- 1) erythema migrans - bulls eye rash at bite site; wil disappear; headache, stiffness, muscle aches, and fatigue
- 2) meningitis or myocardial damage (several weeks after rash)
- 3) chronic arthritis - especially knees
treatment for lyme disease?
cause of infectious mononucleosis?
- epstein barr virus (EBV)
- herpes viridae
transmission of mono?
incubation of mono?
symptoms for mono?
- fatigue, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, fever, enlarged spleens, and liver
- common to see secondary infection like strep throat
treatment for mono?
cause for ebola hemorrhagic fever
- ebola virus - 90% mortality
- filoviridae - sheperds crook or fishhook end to them
- marburg virus - 50-60% mortality
transmission of ebola?
direct contact with infected blood or fluids
incubation for ebola?
symptoms for ebola?
- early: headache, sore throat, vomiting, fatigue
- late: (may be within 24hrs) bleeding from every orifice, skin rash (hemorrhage), seizures, delirium, coma, and death
treatment for ebola?
- no treatment
- high mortality rate
cause of dengue fever
- dengue virus type 1,2,3,4
- tropical climates
vector/transmission for dengue fever?
incubation for dengue fever?
symptoms for dengue fever?
- high fever, headache, rash, muscle pains, pains in limbs
- recover in 1 week
treatment dengue fever
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
- human immunodeficiency virus type I
- RNA virus w/ reverse transcriptase
transmission of Aids
- sexual transmission
- blood borne pathogen
- mother can pass to fetus or nursing infant
incubation for AIDS?
6 days - 6 weeks
- infects dendritic cells (phagocytic)
- CD4 T Helper
- lymphocytes, intestinal epithelim and brain cells
- acute infection- many asymptomatic or mild, include fever, headache, sore throat, muscle aches, and enlarged lymph nodes
- asymptomatic period - individual infections (HIV)
- immunodeficiency - CD4 < 200 then you have AIDS; prior to that you have HIV
- T Helper cells not enough to fight infections
AIDS related complex (ARC)
fever weight loss, fatigue, and diarrhea, lymphadenophathy, opportunistic infections
treatment for AIDS
- slow viral replication - not a cure
- HAART - highly active anti retroviral therapy
- 2 reverse transcriptase and one protease inhibitors
cause of malaria?
vector for malaria
treatment for malaria
- chloroquine, primaquine
- prophylaxis use if traveling in an area with malaria
transmission of toxoplasmosis
- cat feces in a litter box, garden, or a sand box
- ingestion of under cooked infected meats (cysts)
- 10-23 days after ingesting meat
- 5-20 days after ingesting cat feces (oocytes)
- most adults are asymptomatic
- pregnant woman in the first trimester infection can cause abortion or damage to embryo; later it can cause congenital defects including blindness, deafness, or MR
- wurcheria bancrafti (south america)
- brugia malayi (asia)
vector - bite of infected mosquito introduces larva to skin
- larvae enter lymph
- larvae mature to adult worms - can take 9-12 months
- mate - produce microfilaria
- blocked lymphatics
- enlarged limbs
anti helminthic drugs