Psych 205

  1. rough-and-tumble play
    friendly playfighting, emerges in the preschool years and expands in middle childhood
  2. Piaget's concrete operational stage
    children's thought becomes far more logical, flexible and organized than in early childhood.
  3. information-processing
    A perspective that examines separate aspects of thinking.
  4. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    neurological difficulty applied to children who have great difficulty paying attention and learning.
  5. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
    defines eight independent intelligences in terms of distinct sets of processing operations.
  6. Erikson's industry versus inferiority
    a psychosocial conflict of the combination of adult expectations and children's drive toward mastery
  7. self-concepts
    psychologocial traits and social comparisons appear and a hierarchically organized self-esteem emerges
  8. social comparisons
    judgement of one's own appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others.
  9. ideal self
    person you want to be
  10. Real Self
    Person you actually are
  11. Children's four broad categories of social acceptance
    a. Popular children

    b. Rejected children

    c. Controversial children

    d. Neglected children
  12. Popular children
    receive many votes
  13. Rejected children
    actively disliked, highest risk for poor school performance and antisocial behavior
  14. Controversial children
    Receive many votes, both positive and negative
  15. Neglected children
    seldom chosen, either positively or negatively
  16. Popular-prosicial children
    combine academic and social competence; they are kind and considerate, communicating with peers in sensitive, friendly and cooperative ways.
  17. Popular-antisocial children
    may be "tough" boys who are athletically skilled but are poor students who cause trouble and defy adult authority.
  18. Mastery-oriented attribution
    School-age children who are high in academic self-esteem:

    • 1) credit theri success to ability
    • 2) persistent approach to learning
  19. Learned helplessness
    attribute failure to ability but, when succeed, conclude external factors such as luck
  20. attribution retraining
    encourages learned-helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting mor effort.
  21. Sibling rivalry
    competitiong among siblings
  22. Delayed sleep phase syndrome
    major sleep episode is delayed by 2 or more hours of the desired bedtime
  23. Anorexia nervosa
    An eating disturbance in which individuals starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat
  24. Piaget's formal operational stage
    Young people develop the capacity of scientific thinking, arriving at a more general logical rules through internal reflection
  25. Imaginary audience
    adolescent's belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern.
  26. Personal fable
    adolescents' belief that they are special and unique, so that others cannot possibly understand their thoughts and feelings.
  27. Information-processing
    • A variety of specific mechanisims for cognitive change:
    • 1) Attention
    • 2) Inhibition
    • 3) Strategies
    • 4)Knowledge
    • 5)Metacognition
    • 6) Cognitive self-regulation
    • 7) Speed of thinking and processing capacity
  28. Identity versus role confusion
    constructs a solid self-definition based on self-chosen values and goals
  29. Lawrence Kohlberg
    Continued the research of Piaget, identified 6 distinct stages of moral development
  30. autonomy
    a sense of oneself as a separate individual.
  31. depression
    influenced by a diverse combo of biological and environmental factors
  32. suicide
    increases over the lifespan from childhood to old age but jumps sharply at adolescence
  33. Emerging adulthood
    transitional phase of development to adulthood which allows for a further development before taking on adult roles
  34. "wear-and-tear" theory
    Worn-out body parts usually repair or replace themselves, and no relationship exists between physical work and early death.
  35. Programmed effects of specific genes
    "aging genes" control certain biological changes, such as menopause, gray hair and deterioration ob body cells
  36. Cumulative effects of random events
    gradual damage to DNA in body cells through spontaneous or externally caused mutations that accumulate, making cell repair and replacement less efficient pr producing abnormal cancerous cells.
  37. Free radicals
    Probably cause of age-related DNA and cellular abnormalities. Naturally occurring, highly reactive chemicals that form in the presence of oxygen or may be triggered by the presence of radiation and certain pollutants and drugs.
  38. Epistemic cognition
    reflection on one's own thinking process
  39. Relativistic thinking
    Thinking with both reason and intuition
  40. Expertise
    Develops in adulthood as individuals master specific complex domains.
  41. Fantasy period
    In early to middle childhood, children fantasize about career options; their preferences  guided largely by familiarity, glamor and excitement, bear little relation to the decisions they will eventually make
  42. Tentative period
    Between ages 11-16 adolescents think about careers in more complex ways including interests, vocations, requirements education, etc.
  43. Realistic period
    By the late teens and early twenties, young people start narrowing options.
  44. Vocational choice
    Influenced by personality, family, teachers, gender as young adults explore possibilities and eventually settle on an occupation.
  45. Intimacy versus isolation
    Erikson's psychological conflict of early childhood which is reflected in the young person's thoughts and feelings about making a permanent commitment of an intimate partner
  46. Generativity
    caring for the next generation and helping to improve society
  47. Social clock
    Age graded expectations for major life events.
Card Set
Psych 205
Psych Final