NUTR 225 Ch. 10

  1. Enzyme
    A protein that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaciton
  2. Coenzyme
    A molecule that combines with an enzyme to activate it
  3. B-vitamis
    • Important for energy metabolism
    • -thiamin
    • -riboflavin
    • -niacin
    • -vitamin B6
    • -folate
    • -vitamin B12
    • -patothenic acid
    • -biotin
  4. Thiamin
    • -Required for carbohydrate metabolism
    • -Beriberi: deficiency of thiamin resulting in muscle wasting and nerve damage, and heart failure
  5. Riboflavin
    • -Part of coenzyme involved in oxidation-reduction reactions
    • -Ariboflavinosis: riboflavin deficiency that causes sore throat and swollen mucous membranes
  6. Niacin
    • -Coenzyme assist with metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids
    • -Pellagra: severe niacin deficiency
    • -4 Ds: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death
  7. Vitamin B6
    • -Part of a coenzyme for more than 100 enzymes, assists in amino acid metabolism, neurotransmitter, and assists in heme synthesis
    • -Deficiency: anemia, elevated levels of homocysteine
  8. Folate
    • -Involved in DNA synthesis, amino acid, metabolism, red blood cell synthesis
    • -Deficiency: macrocytic anemia
  9. Neural Tube Defects
    Required for cell division and proper formation of the neural tube (develops into the brain and spinal cord)

    A woman's need for this dramatically increases during pregnancy
  10. Vascular Disease
    Folate/Vitamin B12 required for breakdown of homocysteine

    • -Low levels may cause increased level of homocysteine
    • -High homocysteine levels are associated w/greater risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease
  11. Anemia
    "Without blood"; any condition of low hemoglobin levels
  12. Macrocytic anemia
    • Severe folate deficiency
    • enlarged red blood cells w/insufficient hemoglobin
    • symptoms: weakness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, headache, shortness of breath
  13. Vitamin B12
    • -Part of coenzymes for blood formation
    • -Required for nerve functioning, homocysteine breakdown
    • -Deficiency results in anemia, low energy, fatigue, shortness of breath, can lead to pernicious anemia
  14. Pernicious Anemia
    • -Vitamin B12 deficiency; due to low acid production in stomach
    • -Symptoms include pale skin, reduced energy, fatigue, neurological symptoms
  15. Pantothenic Acid
    • -Component of coenzyme for fatty acid metabolism
    • -Deficiency is very rare
  16. Biotin
    • -Part of coenzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
    • -Deficiency symptoms include hair thinning, loss of hair color, red rash on face
    • -Deficiency is rare
  17. Choline
    • -Vitamin-like substance that assists in homocysteine metabolism
    • -Deficiency can lead to fat accumulation in the liver
  18. Iodine
    -Critical for synthesis of thyroid hormones
  19. Too much iodine vs. Not enough iodine
    Too much: Blocks synthesis of thyroid hormone -> results in goiter: enlarged thyroid

    Too little: Hypothyroidism and goiter; cretinism: mental retardation from iodine deficiency during embryonic development
  20. Chromium
    • -Assists insulin as it transports glucose from blood into cells
    • -Chromium deficiency inhibits glucose absorption by body cells
  21. Manganese
    • -Coenzyme involved in energy metabolism
    • -Part of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase
    • Toxicity impairs the nervous system, causing spams and tremors
  22. Sulfur
    • -Component of thiamin and biotin
    • -Stabilizes protein structure
  23. Blood
    only fluid tissue in the body
  24. Functions of blood
    • -Transport of oxygen and nutrients to cells
    • -Removal of waste products from cells
  25. Components of Blood
    • -Erythrocytes: red blood cells
    • -Leukocytes: white blood cells of the immune system
    • -Platelets: cell fragments that assist in blood clotting
    • -Plasma: the fluid portion of the blood
Card Set
NUTR 225 Ch. 10
Nutrition 225 Final