Lab Values

  1. Na = Sodium
    • 136-146
    • Low:  hyponatremia secondary to fluid loss from diarrhea, vomiting, diaphoresis, diuretic use; can cause postural hypotension, cramps, weakness, fatigue

    High:  hypernatremia: secondary to dehydration, high salt intake, poor renal function

    Can cause edema, tachycardia
  2. K = Potassium
    • 3.5-5
    • Low: hypokalemia secondary to vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, use of loop diuretics
    • Can cause ventricular arrhythmias

    • High:  hyperkalemia secondary to oversupplementation, renal or endocrine problems
    • Can cause ventricular arrhythmias, asystole
  3. Cl=Chloride:
    • 98-108
    • High:  can be seen with diarrhea

    Low:  vomiting, adrenal disease
  4. CO2
    • 22-34
    • Respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide in lungs. Can indicate acidosis or alkalinity.
  5. BUN = Blood Urea, Nitrogen:
    • 8-20
    • Indicator of renal function
    • Low:  liver disease, anorexia
    • High:  kidneysnot functioning causing build up of breakdown products
  6. Creat = Creatinine:

    Indicator of renal function

    Low:  liver disease, anorexia

    High:  renal disease, nephropathy, can occur in brittle diabetics
  7. Ca = Calcium:

    Low:  hypocalcemia secondary to renal failure, low calcium or vitamin D intake, excessive magnesium intake, laxative abuse

    Can cause osteoporosis, muscle spasms, cardiac arrhythmias, asystole

    High:  hypercalceimia secondary to immobilization, bone cancer, antacid use

    Can cause thirst, polyuria, renal stones, decreased muscle tone, tachycardia, arrhythmia, asystole
  8. Gluc: Glucose:

    Low:  hypoglycemia: rule out addisons disease, liver disease or failure

    High:  hyperglycemia:  rule out cushings disease, thiazides, glucocorticoids, liver disease, pancreatitis
  9. Hgb:  Hemoglobin:
    varies by gender  (12-17) normal values lower in females

    Amount of oxygen carrying protein in the RBC

    Low:  anemia

    High:  lung disease, liver or kidney tumors
  10. Hct:  Hematocrit:
    varies by gender (35-50%) normal values lower in females

    Percentage of blood volume occupied by RBC

    Low:  anemia

    High:  smoking, chronic lung disease
  11. WBC:  White Blood Cells:

    Responsible for immune function, destroy foreign diseases/bodies

    Can be broken down into different types of cells:  lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils

    Low:  bone marrow disease, enlarged spleen

    High:  infection, leukemia
  12. Plt:  Platelets:

    Responsible to prevent bleeding

    Low:  thrombocytopenia, acute blood loss, acute infection with sepsis

    High:  infection, inflammation, cancers, spleen removal
Card Set
Lab Values
Lab Values