Chapter 2

  1. Perception
    • Use prior knowledge to gather and interpret stumuli by the sense
    • Example-a word
    • -eyes
    • -previous knowledge about shape of letters
    • -Previous knowledge about fragments of a word
  2. Object/Pattern Recognition
    • -Identifying a complex arrangment of sensory stilmuli
    • -Understanding pattern is different from background

    -Looking at an object, sensory than organizes raw info by sensory receptors
  3. Distal stimulus
    An object in the environment- ex. cellphone on desk
  4. Proximal Stimulus
    Infomation registered by sensory receptors

    -image cellphone creates on retina
  5. Sensory Memory
    A large-capacity storage system that records info from each senses
  6. Ionic Memory
    (Visual Sensory Memory)
    Keeping the image of a visual stimuli for a brief period of time before object dissappears
  7. Primary Visual Cortex
    Occipital lobe of the brain

    Part of cerebral cortex that deals with basic processing of stimuli
  8. Figure
    Distinct shape with clearly defined edges

  9. Ground
    Region left over- Background
  10. Ambiguous figure-ground relationship
    When figure and ground reverse from time to time

    -When organization of stimulus occurs, one portion stands out while other recedes

    • Neurons adapt to one figure
    • Solving by alternating two solutions
  11. Illusory contours
    Seeing edges even when not physically there

    • Early stage-some cells respond
    • Later stages- Visual system tries to make sense and organize
  12. Template-Matching theory
    Matching a stimulus to a set of templetes

    Only work for two-dimensional,isolated objects like letters, numbers
  13. Feature-Analysis Theory
    A visual stimulus has a small number of characteristics called distinctive features

    ex.Letter R- has curved line, vertical line and diagonal line

    More alike the characteristics are, the longer it takes to tell them apart

    Does not describe physical relationship of features
  14. Hubel and Wiesel
    Insert wires and show VS like bar of light- recorded a particular neuron in repsonse to the VS

    Responded to a specific retinal region or bar is at certain angle
  15. Recognition-by-componnents theory
    • View of an object that is show by simple 3-D shapes called geons
    • Viewer center approach- making the object recognizable
  16. Bottom-up processing
    Identify shape and go beyond primary visual cortex
  17. Top-down
    Proir Knowledge and experience to help early visual stimulus process
  18. Word Superiority Effect
    Idenify a single letter more accurately and more faster when it appears in a word rather than by itself or random wording
  19. Change Blindness
    Fail to detect change in object or scene

    Inattentional blindness means when one pays attention to another event in a scene and fail to know when a unexpected but completely visible object appears

    Well notice change if it is important or improbably
  20. Prosopagnosia
    Can not recognize human faces visually but can recognize other objects
  21. Temporal cortex
    Area most resposnsible for brain recognition
  22. Coarticulation
    When pronouncing phoneme, mouth remains same shape of previous phoneme
  23. Phonemic Restoration
    Fill in the missing phoneme using the contextual meaning

    Top-down process
  24. The McGurk Effect
    When visual info effects the speech perception when somebody has use noth visual and auditory informtion
  25. Phonetic Module
    Neural mechanism that handles sppech perception
  26. Special Mechanism Approach
    Ability to detect speech stimuli
  27. Catagorical Perception
    Hear certain phoneme than halfway
  28. General Mechanism Approach
    Ability to detect speech sounds and non-speech sounds
Card Set
Chapter 2
Psyc 3350