Standard drug forms
- 1. Rectal
- 2. Oral
- 3. Injectable
- 4. Topical
- 5. Inhalant
Oral drug forms
Tablet-disc of compressed drug.
Enteric coated tablet- special coating that resists disintergrating by gastric juices, dissolve in the intestine.
Capsule- gelatin encapsuled drug.
Time release capsule- contains drug particles that have various coatings. These coatings dissolve at various times thus deliver a dose over an extended amount of time.
Lozenge- tablet with flavoring agent. Local use
Suspension- not evenly dissolved, needs to be shaked well before use.
Emulsion- contrains oil and fat in the water.
Elixer- alcohol based.
Syrup- sweetened flavored liquid.
Solution- evenly dissolved.
Rectal Drug Form
Suppository- drug suspended in substances such as cocoa butter that melts at body temp.
Enema solution- drug suspended in solution.
Injectable Drug Forms
Solution- drug is suspended in the sterile vehicle.
IV- IV push, a small amount of drug.
IV- infusion- drip.
IM- Intra muscular
ID- intra dermal. Ex. allergy skin test.
PPD- purified protein derivative. Ex-Mantaux test.
Epidural- above the dura matter.
Intraspinal- subarachnoid space.
Intracapsular- into the joint space.
Topical Drug Form
Dermal and mucosal application. Cream and or ointment applied to wet or dry skin.
Liniment- rubbed on skin
Dermal patches- skin patch. Ex- Nitorglycerin patch, nicotin, birth control.
Eye, ear and nasal drops.
Rectal or vaginal suppositories
Buccal- Between cheeks and gums and sublingual tablet.
Inhaled Drug Form
A spray or mist that is inhaled through....
- 1. Spray bottle
- 2. Nebulizer
- 3. Metered dose inhaler
- 4. Gas- Nitrous oxide
1. Medication cup- paper cup, plastic cup
2. Metal pill crusher
3. Ampule- small glass container that holds a single doss of sterile solution for injection.
4. Vial- glass container sealed at the top by a rubber stopper to enhance sterility of contents. Ex. Solution or powder, Multi dose.
3/8, 1 1/2 standard injections
5"- intraspinal, intra cardiac
2"- 5" intra articular
Gauge- the width of the needle
- Standard hypodermic syringe are 2-3ml, s/c and IM
- Tuberculin- 10 calibrations, ML, one small line = 0.1ml
Abbreviations and System Measurments
- ac- before min
- ad lib- as desired
- amp- am poule
- bid- twice a day
- cap- capsule
- ci- chloride
- cm- centimeter
- dc- discontinue
- dw- distilled water
- ec- enteric coated
- elix- elixir
- er- extended release
- gr- grain
- gm- gram
- gtt- drop
- kci- potassium chloride
- kvo- keep vein open
- lb- pound
- meq- milli equivalent
- meg- microorganism
- mg- milligram
- mi- milliliter
- naci- sodium chloride
- ng- nasogastric
- ns- normal saline
- otc- over the counter
- pc- after meal
- pca- patient controlled agent
- qt- quart
- rl- ringers lactant
- tab- tablet
- tid- 3 times a day
- to- telephone order
- sl- sublingual
- sr- sustained release
- stat- immediately
- tsp- teaspoon
- tbsp- tablespoon
- vo- verbal order
Institute for safe medication practice
- 1. Date
- 2. Patients name
- 3. Medication name
- 4. Amount
- 5. Dosage
- 6. Frequency
- 7. Route
- 8. Signature of physician
Systems of Measurements
1. Apothecary- liquid, minimum fluid, ounce fluid, dram, pint, quart, gallon, solid grain, ounce and pound.
2. Metric- liquid, liter, milliliter, solid, gram and milligram.
3. Household- tsp, tbsp, and cup
Metric Apothecary Household
1ml 15 minimum 1 tsp
5ml 1 dram 1 tbsp
15ml 3 dram 2 tbsp
30ml 1 oz 1 cup
500ml 1 pint
1gm= 1000mg= 15gr
0.5gm= 500mg= 7.5gr
1gm= 1000mg= 15gr
0.5gm= 500mg= 7.5gr
1lb= 0.453592kg1kg= 2.2lbs
Pediatric dosage- blood brain barrier
Geriatric dosage- dosages are reduced due to...
- 1. lower metabolism
- 2. poor circulation
- 3. impairment of kidney, liver, lung function
Responsibilities & Principles of Drug Administration
Responsibilities- knowledge, judgment and skill.
1. up to date information about medication
2. Asses the patient
3. Skill in delivery of medication accurately with documentation
4. Patient education
5. Unfamiliar drugs should never be administered
6. PDR- Physician Desk Reference, USP/DI (United States Pharmacopia Drug Index) package inserts.
Meticulous care in preparation and administration of drugs reduces chances of error.
1. Report it immediately to the one in charge so that corrective actions can be taken for the patients welfare.
2. Patients record should reflect the corrective actions taken for justification in legal proceedings.
3. An incident report must be completed.
Principles of Administration of Drugs
1. Cleanliness- wash hands and clean preparation area.
3. Preparation area should be well lit
Guidelines to review before giving medication
- 1. right medication
- 2. right amount
- 3. right time
- 4. right route
- 5. right technique
- 6. right patient
- 7. right documentation
Guidelines to review before giving medication breakdown
1. never give the drug when the name is obscured.
2. never leave medication at bedside
3. expired medication should never be given
4. never open a unit dose until the patient is prepared to take it.
1. calculate and have cleared by someone
1. right timing so that the medication is most effective.
2. makes correct concentration in the blood.
3. empty stomach so that the food does not wrongly interact with the medications.
4. Or take meds with meal
5. Advise at bedtime for drowsiness
1. effect on degree of absorption, speed of drug action and side effects.
1. Materials should be sterile. Gloves should be worn. Cup should be used to hold pills.
- 1. check patient bracelet
- 2. check medical record number
- 3. check patients date of birth
1. every drug order should be recorded in patients medical record. name of drug, time, administered dose, route, location of injection and signature of person administering meds. PRN take as needed.
All preparations of the same drug name must have uniform strength, qualities and purity.