social studies final

  1. geography
    study of earth's physical and human features
  2. equator
    line of latitude that divides earth into north and south
  3. prime meridian
    the line of longitiude at 0 degrees that divides the earth into the eastern and western hemisphere
  4. absolute location
    exact lace on earth identified by coordinates formed by the intersection of a line of latitude and a line of longitude. Recorded latitude then longitude.
  5. climate
    the weather in a certain area over a period of time
  6. B.C.
    stands for "before christ" and refers to events that happiened before the birth of jesus christ
  7. A.D.
    stands for "anno domini" and refers to events that happiened after he birth of jesus christ
  8. artifact
    a weapon, tool, or other item made by humans
  9. specialization
    practice where different people are focusing on doing different jobs
  10. civilization
    complex societies that have cities, organized government, art, language, class division, and a writing system
  11. irrigation
    man-made way of watering crops
  12. cuneiform
    ancient sumerian form of writing
  13. empire
    group of lands under one ruler
  14. dynasty
    group of rulers from one family
  15. monotheism
    belief in one god
  16. prophet
    one who claims to be instructed by god to share his word with the people
  17. synagogue
    jewish place of worship
  18. diasporta
    when jews are scattered throughout the world outside of their homeland of jueda. during this time, the hebrew bible was translated into greek speading jewish ideas throughout the world
  19. subcontinent
    a large mass of land part of a continent but seperate because of physical features such as mountins
  20. sanskrit
    ancient written language of india
  21. hinduism
    one of the oldest religion in the world it is polytheistic with thousands of gods and goddesses that are apart of the universal spirt, brahman
  22. buddhism
    founded by siddartha gautama based on hinduism
  23. caste
    social group that people are born into and cannot change
  24. reincarnation
    the idea of living many different lives the cycle of life death and rebirth
  25. aristocrat
    nobles or upper class people whose wealth came their land
  26. mandate
    a formal rule or command
  27. agora
    an open area used for a market and meeting place
  28. oligarchy
    a government ruled by a few people usually weathly and powerful
  29. direct democracy
    citizens run government at mass meetings: every citizen votes firsthand on laws and policies
  30. acropolis
    a fortified area usually on the top of a hill that served as a safe refuge in times of attack. it also could serve as a religious center
  31. representive democracy
    citizens chose a smaller group of representitives to govern on their behalf
  32. philosophy
    from the greek word meaning "love of wisdom"
  33. legacy
    what a person or civilization leaves behind for others to use or build on
  34. republic
    form of government in which rulers are elected by citizens
  35. Pax Romana
    200 year peace in the roman civilization; means "roman peace"
  36. inflation
    rapidly increase in price due to the decline of money value
  37. barter
    to exchange goods without using money
  38. patrician
    wealthy landowner and member of the ruling class
  39. plebeian
    common working class people; mostly farmers
  40. consul
    top government offical of the republic
  41. veto
    to reject or cancel anothers decision
  42. missionary
    a person who teaches his or her religon to those who do not believe in it
  43. guild
    group of craftspeople who join together to protect themselves and their trade
  44. anti-semitism
    hatred of jews
  45. theology
    study of religion and god
  46. messiah
    delieverer sent by god to save the chosen people
  47. martyr
    someone wiling to die for their religious beliefs
  48. otzi
    neolithic man whose remarkably well preserved body told us about life in prehistoric europe
  49. hammurabi
    king of babylon who created the worlds earliest codes or collections of law
  50. hatshepsut
    female pharoh who concentrated on building the egyptian economy through trade
  51. amenhotep
    ruler who tried to force the egyptians to become monotheistic
  52. tutankhamen
    boy king whose tomb told us much about life in the new kingdom
  53. howard carter
    archeologist who discovered and excavated the tomb of tutankhamen
  54. abraham
    founder of judaism made origional covenant with god
  55. moses
    prophet who led the israelites out of slavery in egypt
  56. qin shihuangdi
    founder of the qin dynasty, known for uniting china undr a very harsh rule and his famous tomb of clay soldiers
  57. pericles
    athenian general and statesman who led athens through its golden age
  58. herodotus
    writer of "the persian wars" known as the father of history
  59. alexander the great
    ruler who conquered great area spreading greek culture throughout the world; built the greatest city of the time, alexandria in egypt
  60. socrates
    philosopher who taught that absolute right and wrong did exist; known as "the father of philosophy" he was sentenced to death for his teachings
  61. constantine
    roman emperor who was the first to accept christianity within the empire
  62. ibn sina
    muslim doctor who discovered how dieases spread from person to person
  63. primary sources
    first hand pieces of evidence such as letters diaries, records and artifacts that were created by people who saw or actually experienced the event
  64. secondary sources
    pieces of evidence created after the event being studied, by people who played no part in the origional event; biographies, encyclopedias, textbooks, and documentaries
  65. paleolithic people
    adapted to their enviornmet and invented many tools to help them survive
  66. neolithic age
    people started farming, building communities, producing goods, and trading
  67. mesopotamia
    civilization; cradle of civilizations; began in the valley of the tigris and euphrates rivers
  68. sumerians
    invented writing and made other important contributions to later people
  69. egyptian civilization
    began in fertile nile river valley, where natural barriers like the cataracts and deserts discouraged invasions, believed in life after death, and were polytheistic
  70. pharoah
    who ruled egyptians (they were all-powerful)
  71. Egyptians in old kingdom
    built huge ston pyrimads as tombs for pharoahs the entrance to the pyrimad always faced north
  72. abraham
    led the israelites left mesopotamia and settled in canaan
  73. israelites and egypt
    the were forced to move to because of lack of food and a drought
  74. moses
    led by whom did the israelites escape after imprisoned by the egyptian pharoahs
  75. torah and ten commandments
    moses recieved these on top of Mt. sinai
  76. indus river valley
    india's first civilization, including harappa and mohenjo-daro developed in this river valley
  77. iron plow and sandskrit language
    aryans, a group of nomadic herders brought these into northern india by 1000 bc
  78. caste system
    this, belonging to india, divided people into rigid social and economic classes called varnas
  79. hinduism
    they are a very old religion with many gods, they believe in reincarnation and follow dharma and karma
  80. siddartha gautama
    he founded the religion of buddhism in northern india
  81. four noble truths, and the eightfold path
    according to buddhism, a person who follows these two things can achieve nirvana
  82. mountainous geography
    this physical feature of greece influenced where people settled and what they did for a living, it also isolated the city-states forcing them to become indeppendent, unifying only in times of war with outside invaders, especially the persians
  83. minoans
    these people from the island of crete, earned their living by building ships and trading
  84. mycenaeans
    these people migrated from central asia, built the first greek kingdoms, and spread power across the mediterranean region, they usually paid taxesin wheat, livestock, or honey
  85. spartans
    they focused on military skills to control the people they conquered and to prevent uprisings, their army was the strongest in the world and often conquered neighboring regions
  86. athens
    the people of this place were intrested in building a democracy they were involved in government, education, and the arts
  87. parthenon
    magnificent temple built during the age of pericles, it took 15 years to complete this
  88. age of pericles
    thiss was a magnificent time of creativity and learning in athens
  89. peloponnesian war
    this war led to defeat of athens and weakened all of greece
    these three greek philosophers affect modern thinking about education, government, and science
  91. alenander the geat
    he was king phillip's son, conquered an empire that stretched to africa in the south and to india and modern pakistan to the east
  92. romans
    these people were latin speaking, settled in the furtile region of western italy, and were influenced by etruscian and greek culture
  93. italy
    it is a pennisula shaped like a boot that juts out into the mediterranian sea; its important geographical features include the alps, 7 hills, apennines, tiber river, and latium plain
  94. tweleve tables
    these were the first set of roman laws and serve as a base for our legal system today
  95. carthage
    the punic wars were fought against these people
  96. gained control of sicily
    in the first punic war the romans did what
  97. claimed rule over the entire meddertrainian region
    in the second puni war the romans did what
  98. destroyed carthage and enslaved all their people
    in the third punic war the romans did what
  99. julius caesar
    he was a military hero, seized power and declared himself dictator for life; he was assassinated by roman senators whho wanted to keep the republic in order
  100. octavian
    defeated anthony and cleopatra at battle of actium to control roman empire. takes title of Augustus which means majestic one.
  101. Pax Romana
    period of roman peace augustus begins by expanding the empire
  102. roman art, literature, and science borrowed from the...
  103. Roman engineers made advances in
    cement, the arch, aqueducts, and domes
  104. pantheon
    temple built to honor rome's gods/goddesses. they offered food and prayed to honor them too.
  105. christian church split into
    romann catholic and eastern orthodox
  106. peter and paul
    two most important christian apostles
  107. diocletian
    divided empire in 284 AD and tried to improve economy, did not work.
  108. Odoacer
    germanic general who defeated last roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus. ends western roman empire
  109. legacies of rome
    government, language (latin), and architecture
  110. byzantine empire
    constantinople is capital, called eastern roman empire, became more like greek culture as time went by.
  111. monks
    help spread christianity throughout europe, catholic church became strong in early middle ages
  112. feudalism
    europe was divided into territories owned by nobles and worked by serfs
  113. magna carta
    signed by king john I in 1215 granting rights to nobles and establishing a parliament.
  114. crusades
    holy wars encouraged by pope to recapture jerusalem and palestine from muslims. only the first crusadee was successful
  115. reformation
    attempt to change catholic church by german monk martin luther. created prostestant church
  116. two branches of islam
    shiite and sunni
  117. what did crusades do in europe?
    increase trade and broke down feudalism, strengthened power of kings and weakened power of noble
  118. black death
    plague that swept through europe and asia during 1300's killing millions and greatly changing economy and society
  119. renaissance
    period of rebirth in interest in art and learning at end of middle ages
Card Set
social studies final
cards for 6th grade social studies exam