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  1. What were the main areas of Greek colonization by c. 700 BCE?
    Southern Italy and on the coast of Western Asia, around the Mediterranean Sea.
  2. How did the Romans defeat Hannibal’s invasion?
    • Not attacking him in open battle and burning crops and farms to stop the Carthaginians getting food.
    • Attacking Carthaginian lands in Spain to isolate Hannibal and stop him getting reinforcements. Hannibal returned to Carthage but was defeated at Zama in 202 BCE.
  3. What were the important reforms made by Augustus (Octavian)?
    • He divided provinces of the empire into two categories. The frontier provinces, where the largest armies were needed for defense, and fertile Egypt was kept under his direct control.
    • He reduced the size of army, reducing the number of legions from over 60 to 28, or around 140,000 men.
    • He purged the Senate of members who supported the Republic or who had contributed to instability during the civil wars.
    • He created a special regiment of the army called the Praetorian Guard that always stayed in Rome to protect the emperor.
    • He created a new civil service to run the empire more efficiently and supervise, for example, the grain supplies, the water supplies, and the building of roads.
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grade 8