A&P Seeley 3.3

  1. Cytosol
    Consists of a fluid portion, a cytoskeleton, and cytoplasmic inclusions
  2. Flagella
    • Similar to cilia but longer.
    • Only sperm cells have one.
  3. Microvilli
    Increase cell surface
  4. Structural genes
    DNA sequences that determine specific amino acid sequences in proteins, such as enzymes, hormones, or structural proteins
  5. Regulatory Genes
    Segments of DNA involved in controlling which structural genes are expressed in a given tissue
  6. Gene expression
    The production of proteins from the information stored in DNA
  7. Transcription
    Copying DNA
  8. Translation
    Creating new DNA
  9. tRNA
    • Transfer RNA
    • Carries the amino acids to the ribosomes
  10. RNA Polymerase
    An enzyme that synthesizes the complementary RNA molecule from DNA
  11. Promoter
    A DNA nucleotide sequence
  12. Terminator
    Causes RNA polymerase to detach from the DNA and release the newly formed mRNA
  13. Exons
    Sections of the protein-coding region of RNA that code for parts of a protein
  14. Introns
    Sections of the protein-coding region of RNA that do not code for parts of a protein
  15. Codons
    Three nucleotide units that carry the genetic code
  16. Start codon
    Signals the beginning of translation
  17. Stop codonsignal the end of translation
  18. Anticodon
    Consists of three nucleotides and is complementary to a particular codon of mRNA
  19. Proproteins
    Proteins that are longer when first made than they in their final functional state
  20. Proenzyme
    The proproteins of proteins that are enzymes
  21. Posttranslational processing
    Various modifications to proteins
  22. Cell life cycle
    The changes a cell undergoes from the time it is formed until it divides to produce two new cells.
  23. Mitosis
    The division of the nucleus into two nuclei
  24. What are the 4 stages of mitosis
    Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
  25. Cytokinesis
    The division of the cytoplasm of the cell to produce two new cells
Card Set
A&P Seeley 3.3
Anatomy & Physiology text, Seeley, Ch 3 Cell Biology & Genetics, part 3/4