Organization levels in order.
- 1. Atom
- 2. Molecule
- 3. Cell
- 4. Tissue
- 5. Organ
- 6. Organ system
What is Homeostasis & the two organ systems that play major roles in controlling homeostasis.
- Stable internal environment.
- Nervous AND Endocrine systems.
The output shuts off/reduces the original stimulus.
The output enhances the original stimulous
Highest point of the body
Lowest part of the body
Front of the body
Back of the body
Towards the center of the body
Towards outside of the body
Parts closest to connecting parts of body
Parts farthest from connecting parts of the body
Separating left and right portions of the body. CUT DOWN CENTER.
Separating front and back
Cut in half separating top and bottom
Lines cavity walls
Serosae: ABDOMINAL ORGANS
R Hypochondriac-Epigastric-L Hypochondriac
R Lumbar-Umbilical-L Lumbar
R iliac-Hypogastric-L illiac
What is a nucleus of an atom composed of?
Protons and Neutrons
- Proton number
- ALSO electrons.
Protons +(plus) Neutrons
Same proton number but different neutron number.
- Attraction between cation and anion. NA+Cl-
- Complete transferring of electrons
Polar covalent bonds
unequal sharing. H2O. polar=pull
Non polar covalent bonds
Equal sharing. O2 Non polar= no pull.
Attraction between positive H and negative O or N. Weakest bond!
- resist pH change.
- carbonic acid.
- lactose (glucose+glucose)
- sucrose (glucose+fructose)
- maltose (glucose+galactose)
- Starch (plant, polymer of glucose)
- Glycogen (liver, polymer of glucose)
- Cellulose (plant, polymer of glucose)
glycerol + 3 fatty acids NON POLAR
(saturated and unsaturated)
- Glycerol + 2 fatty acid + phosphate group
- hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads.
Building block for protein\peptide
4 levels of protein structures
- PRIMARY - sequence of amino acids
- SECONDARY - a helix and sheet
- TERTIARY - covalent bond, hydrogen bond
- QUATERNARY - >1 peptide.
disruption of active sites
why are enzymes required for many chemical reactions?
reduce activation of energy in order to speed up reaction.
What type of organic compounds are DNA and RNA?
What is the building block for nucleic acids?
Structural components of a nucleotide
pentose sugar, base, phosphate group.
- A + ribose + 3 P
- Terminal P bond: High energy
Components of plasma membrane
- Proteins: channel/carrier, enzymes, receptors
- Lipid: cholesterol regulates membrane fluidity
- Carbohydrate: attach to proteins and lipids
CO2, O2, H2O, Hydrophobic
- Integral Protein
- Ions, amino acid, glucose
# of solute particles/kg water; 300mOsm
same osmolality as ref
higher osmolality than ref
lower osmolality than reg
- Double membrane, crisae.
- Enzymes, DNA, RNA, ribosome, and proteins in matrix
- produced in nucleolus
- made of proteins and rRNAs
- make proteins for cytosol
ribosome attachment, protein synthesis.
- modify, sort, concentrate, pack, deliver. (post office)
- DELIVER TO: plasma membrane. secretion, lysosome
nuclear envelope, ER, vesicle, golgi apparatus, lysosome, plasma membrane
- like police!
- oxidase neutralize harmful substances
- microfilament :actin for movement
- Intermediate filiment: fibrous protein for shape
- Microtubule: tubilin for trafficking
2 centrisomes, 9 triplets of microtubule, radiate out of microtuble.
Cilia and flagella
- 9 doublets + 2 microtubules
- Double layer nuclear envelope
- Nucleolus:NO MEMBRANE
- rDNA, rRNA, proteins, ribosomes
- Produce ribosomes
sister chromatids, condensed, centromere
- Checkpoints in G1 and G2
- S: DNA replication
- In nucleus
- 5 end strand is synthesized first
- ***helicase, RNA primer, DNA polymerase, leading strand, lagging strand, DNA ligase
- New strand is shorter than the template
- SEMICONSERVATIVE: new DNA contains one new strand and one old stand
MITOSIS: Nucleus division (make cell clones
- Centresome, mitotic spindle (microtubule), nuclear envelope, chromatin, chromostome, sister chromatids
- Division of cytoplasm
- Microfilament forms contractile ring.
Meiotic cell division (make sex cells)
- Meiosis 1: homologues synapsis. 1 diploid-->2 haploid
- Meiosis 2: 2 haploid ---> 4 haploid
- From DNA to RNA
- Make 5 end of RNA first
- initial RNA polymerase binding. RNA elongation by base-pairing rule. termination.
- START- promary mRNA in nucleus
- modification in nucleus **5 end cap, 3 end tail, splicing of introns.
- FINISH- Mature mRNA moves to cytoplasm
- From TNA to protein
- NEED: ribisome, mRNA (codon), tRNA (transport amino acids), rRNA (localization, enzyme) amino acids.
3 nucleotides in DNA
3 nucleotides, in mRNA, complementary to triplet.
3 nucleotides, in tRNA, complementary to codon
AUG for methionine
- translation starts in sytosol
- signal sequence in synthesized first
- guide ribosome to ER