1. Major events in psychology
    • Like Piaget, Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky envisioned children as active constructors of their knowledge. However, in contrast to Piaget’s view, Vygotsky’s perspective stresses the impact of culture and social relations on cognitive development. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory proposes these influences operate in two ways. First, children create their cognitive worlds within a cultural context, regularly transmitting information deemed important to learn. Second, social interactions in this environment guide children’s learning (see s. 3) towards acquisition of new cognitive abilities (see s. 6). Via scaffolding, adults and more skilled peers help children move through the zone of proximal development and master cognitive tasks too difficult to achieve alone. Through dialogue, child and ‘teacher’ reach a point of intersubjectivity and share a common understanding. Vygotsky’s perspective further suggests cognitive development is best studied by examining changes in children’s utilisation of language for interpersonal dialogue and private speech for self-regulation. Vygotsky’s theory has provided a framework for investigating the association between language performance and cognitive change, as well as the relationship between cooperative learning and knowledge acquisition (Henson 2003; Johnson-Pynn and Nisbet 2002).
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  2. Assignment 4

    Describe the contributions to education by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
  3. ).
  4. Even though whole language is the current method of learning to read, phonics is a necessary skill to master. Without phonics instruction reading is difficult, The Action Reading program can teach anyone to read
    • According to research by NICHD phonics may be the only method proven to work. learning to Read is not natural or instinctive. ,phonics provides the natural way of learning. Without the introduction of phonics its difficult to read fluently. Whole language does not provide the essentials of learning to read. Phonics gives the reader the sounds and symbols of every word. Its Scientifically based in the study of the Alphabetic code of English. This means the way our language was assembled. There are 44 phonemes(sounds) and 70 graphemes (letters) to write these sounds. Its not complicated at all the answer is our language is coded. There's a way to break the code and the answer is phonics.
    • Teachers can teach students in a natural simplistic approach, from beginners to adults. All learning is fundamental from basic to the standards required by law. A student has to be fundamentally sound and practice is the way most learning occurs. Phonics uses sound-symbol relationships to associate words with visible que's. It gives students a headstart to learning the Alphabetic Codes. Without these key essentials for how can they accomplish reading.

    • Phonics are like peices to a puzzle all the have a place in the puzzle of learning to read. Separating the make of words so that they are not as big or omnious makes reading possible. If a child or student learns patterns they can become familiar with matching, blending and decoding. Words make meaning if we learn the words we can understand the meaning. When they hear a sound over and over it becomes recognizeable.

    • Along with phonics other methods of research can also apply. Talking with others and finding articles and materials has brought another helpful solution. Poetry is excellent literature, because most poems rhyme and have multi-ple instances of word families. Poems are a productive way to teach phonics(Zimmerman & Ronanski, 2013). The /ay/ appears 7 times in th "Rain rain go away. Poetry provides students the opportunity to practice and explore phonics in an authentic text.
    • Recommended Authors:
    • David Harrison, Brad Bagert, Nikki Grimes, Arnold Adoff.
    • the teaching of Phonics instructions is a tremendous tool for learning to read. Research conducted by the National Reading panel (NRP) shows exposure to multi-media , semantic mapping,and graphic representation may improve vocabulary. To help improve reader's vocabulary and comprehension according to NRP:
    • --Reader needs to write down unfamiliar words
    • ---Increase reading materials such as 'Good Reads"
    • -- Technology Assistance , computers & Internet.
    • -- Incidental Exposure
  5. .:List some questions that teachers can ask students to ensure that they comprehend what they read.What other activities can teachers have students do to help with comprehension skills?
    • Ask questions about story elements (character, setting, beginning, middle , end); what the story says, what they suggest, the sequence of events, how the person(s) in the story feels, whey the event occurred, what good titles might be, etc.
    • Who are the characters in the story?What are the characters like?Do you like the characters or dislike them? Why?What do they do in the story and what happens to them?Why did it happen?Where does the story take place?Is it funny? How?Is it sad? How?Could the story happen in real life or is it make-believe?How does the story end?What is your favorite part of the story?Does the story have any new words in it?
    • If the story is nonfiction, about rocks or animals, for example, you could write questions on the board such as:
    • What does the story tell about?What does the story tell you about the subject?What is most interesting to you about what you read?What questions have you thought of that the story does not answer?Would you like to read more stories on the subject?
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