1. energy flow
    • flow of energy ecosystem -> organism -> organism
    • all organisms get food, are food for ecosystem
  2. biomass
    total mass of living things in given area
  3. ecological pyramids
    • pyramids of biomass, numbers energy
    • more energy = more organisms; less energy = less organisms
  4. food chain
    models that show flow of energy from plant to animal and animal to animal
  5. food pyramid
    • show loss of energy from one trophic level to another
    • each level's energy decreases by 90%
  6. trophic level
    each step in food chain
  7. biodegration
    the action of living organisms, such as bacteria, to break down organic matter
  8. decomposition
    the breaking down of organic wastes and dead organisms
  9. decomposers
    change waste and dead organisms into usable nutrients
  10. primary consumers
    • consume primary producers
    • second trophic level
  11. primary producers
    • "produce" food such as converting energy from sun into carbs
    • first trophic level
  12. secondary consumers
    consume primary consumers
  13. tertiary consumers
    • top consumers
    • consume secondary consumers
  14. food webs
    models of the feeding relationships within an ecosystem
  15. nutrients
    • chemicals needed for animal and plant growth and life processes
    • most important: carbon, water, phosphorus, nitrogen, hydrogen
  16. stores
    • where nutrients are accumulated for long or short periods of time
    • atmosphere, oceans, land masses, soil
  17. nutrient cycles
    • flow of nutrients in and out of stores
    • human activities increase nutrients faster than natural processes move them back into stores ->affects life on earth
  18. importance of carbon cycle
    • all living things are made of carbon
    • cellular respiration, when cells convert carbs into CO2, H2O and energy
    • photosynthesis CO2 + H20 -> sugar + O2
  19. importance of nitrogen cycle
    • component of DNA and proteins
    • muscle functions and growth
    • plants
  20. importance of phosphurous cycle
    • needed for molecule that carries energy
    • bones
    • root development
    • stem, seed production
  21. human activities carbon cycle
    increase greenhouse gas
  22. human activities nitrogen
    increased (fertilization, burning) -> leaching and washing -> acid precipatation +eutrophication
  23. leaching
    substance dissolve in water and removed from soil
  24. eutrophication
    • excess nutrients = increased plant production and decay
    • removes oxygen from lakes with algae blooms
  25. human activities phosphorous
    increased fertilizer and detergent -> kill species (fish death)
  26. human activities
    alter biotic and abiotic conditions nessecary for biodiversity
  27. bioaccumulation
    • gradual build-up of chemicals in living things
    • affects immune, nervous, reproductive systems, birth malformations
  28. keystone species
    greatly affect population and health
  29. biomagnification
    • chemicals more concentrated in higher trophic levels
    • PBCs synthetic material caused harm to orcas
  30. persistant organic pollutants
    • takes many years to filter out
    • heavy metals, carbon-containing
    • insecticides (DDT!)
  31. heavy metals
    • high density, toxic at low levels
    • lead - anemia, nervous, sterility, imparied mental, kidney fail
    • cadmium - plants uptake, fish, earthworms, animals, us
    • mercury - bioaccu. in heart, kidney, immune, nervous, smoking
  32. bioremediation
    use of living organisms to do natural clean-up through biodegration
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