Geo 113: Part 3

  1. What is the scientific name of the Hawaiian State Flower?
    Yellow Hibiscus (Hibiscus brackenridgei)
  2. Why is the Hawaiian State flower endangered?
    Invasive species, fires, livestock, land development, deforestation
  3. What methods do you use to restore the Endangered State Flower?
    place fences to keep out livestock, remove invasive species, create nurseries
  4. Why is tropical forest biomass important?
    carbon sequestration, timber value, intrinsic value
  5. How do you study tropical forest biomass?
    measure diameter and wood densities
  6. Aves: Birds and their natural history
    • -oldest bird: archaeopteryx 130 mya
    • -diff than reptiles: warm blooded
    • -same as reptiles: legs, air in bones
  7. Four important things about how Birds reproduce?
    • 1. cloaca: bump themselves together
    • 2. breeding behavior: "call" to establish territory and to make presence known, "sing" for breeding
    • 3. eggs and nests made of complex structures
    • 4. sexual dimorphism
  8. What is the Diversity of Birds?
    9,8000 species
  9. What country has the most birds?
  10. birds that represent each guild. (new world followed by old world)
    • carnivores: vultures, griffons
    • frugivores: toucan, horn bill
    • insectivores: flycatchers, flycatcher
    • nectarivores: hummingbirds, sunbirds
  11. What is interesting about bird books?
    They're in evolutionary order
  12. Ratites
    • -old school flightless birds
    • -Africa: Ostrich
    • -Australia: Emu
    • -Australia: Cassowary
  13. Hawks and Vulture
    • -order falconiformos
    • -really good indicator of ecosystem health b/c they go extinct first
    • -vultures ID things by smells, hawks use sight
  14. Pigeons
    • -columbiformes
    • -300 species
    • -good fliers
    • -frugivores
  15. Parrots
    • -330 sp
    • -frugivores: break up fruit and seeds with their beaks
    • -7 sp in LA: green chevron parrots, amazona
    • -endangered b/c of the pet trade
  16. Hummingbirds
    • -300 sp
    • -heartrate: 60/seconds
    • -torpor: resting heart rate
    • -establish territories
  17. Flycatchers LBB
    • -New World: Tyranidae
    • -largest family
  18. What do you know about native birds in Hawaii?
    -population declining
  19. Three methods to study bird, what are they and how are they undertaken?
    • 1. Mist netting
    • -equipment: mist net - catch bird in the pouch
    • -time: i.e. 1000 hours
    • (+) standard
    • (-) small area, most birds are from the understory
    • 2. Line Transect
    • -equipment: binoculars and recorder
    • -measure species richness and abundance
    • (+) good sample in short time
    • (-) 75% need to be identified by sound
    • 3. Point Counts
    • -equipment: binoculars and recorder
    • -points: good survey of a small area, survey all the birds w/in 30m for like 10 minutes
    • -standard and repeatable
  20. What is the species area relationship?
    100 fold increase in area to double the species.
  21. What forest types have the most bird species richness?
    -Rainforests have the most birds species
Card Set
Geo 113: Part 3