1. When was the EAWS program established
    In 1980
  2. What are the three objectives of first aid?
    They are to prevent further injury, infection and the loss of life.
  3. What are the 8 main categories of first aid?
    Bleeding, burns, fractures, electric shock, obstructed airways, heat related injuries, cold weather injuries, and shock.
  4. what are the two types of heat related injuries?
    heat exhaustion and heat stroke
  5. what is heat exhaustion?
    a serious disturbance of blood flow to the brain, heart and lungs.
  6. what are the symptoms of heat exhaustion?
    moist, cool, clammy skin. dilated pupils. normal or high body temp. profuse sweating.
  7. what is heat stroke?
    A breakdown of the sweating mechanism of the body. the victim is unable to eliminate excessive body heat.
  8. what are the symptoms of heat stroke.
    hot and/or dry skin, uneven pupil dilation, and a weak rapid pulse.
  9. what are the three classifications of burns?
    first, second and third degree.
  10. what are the symptoms of a first degree burn?
    produces redness, warmth and mild pain
  11. what are the symptoms of a second degree burn?
    causes red blistered skin and severe pain.
  12. what are the symptoms of a third degree burn?
    destroys tissue, skin and bone in severe cases, however severe pain may be absent due to nerve endings being destroyed.
  13. what are the two types of fractures?
    closed/simple, and open/compound
  14. what is a closed/simple fracture?
    a broken bone without a break in the skin
  15. what is an open/compound fracture?
    a broken bone with a break in the skin with possible bone protrusion.
  16. what are the four methods of controlling bleeding?
    direct pressure, elevation, pressure points, and use of a tourniquet as a last resort.
  17. what is a pressure point?
    it is a point on the body where a main artery lies near the skin surface and over a bone.
  18. how is a pressure point used to reduce or stop bleeding?
    apply physical pressure to the point with fingers or the heel of the hand.
  19. how many pressure points are there?
    there are 11 principle pressure points.
  20. what are the 11 principle pressure points?
    superficial temporal artery (temple), facial artery (jaw), common carotid artery (neck), subclavian artery (collar bone), brachial artery (inner upper arm), brachial artery (inner elbow), radial/ulnar artery (wrist), femoral artery (upper thigh), iliac artery (groin), popliteal artery (knee), anterior/posterior tibial artery (ankle)
  21. what is the cause of electric shock?
    when a person comes in contact with an electric energy source.
  22. what types of injuries can electric shock cause?
    the wide variety of injuries that can result from electric shock range from little or no evidence of injury to severe trauma with associated cardiac arrest.
  23. what are the indications of an obstructed airway?
    inability to talk, grasping and pointing to the throat, exaggerated breathing efforts, and the skin turning a bluish color.
  24. what are the three types of cold weather injuries?
    hypothermia, superficial frost bite, deep frostbite.
  25. what is hypothermia?
    a general cooling of the whole body caused by exposure to low or rapidly falling temperature, cold moisture, snow or ice.
  26. what are the symptoms of hypothermia?
    the victim may appear pale and unconcious and may even be taken for dead. slow shallow breathing, faint or undetectable pulse. semi-rigid body tissue and arms and legs may feel stiff.
  27. what is superficial frost bite?
    is when ice crystals are forming in the upper skin layers after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower.
  28. what is deep frostbite?
    develops when ice crystals are forming in the deeper tissues after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower.
  29. what is shock?
    when the body suffers from insufficient blood flow as a result of severe injury or illness.
  30. what are the different types of shock?
    septic, anaphylactic, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, neurogenic.
  31. how many types of shock are there?
  32. what is septic shock?
    results from bacteria multiplying in the blood and releasing toxins.
  33. what causes septic shock?
    pneumonia, intra abdominal infections (such as a ruptured appendix), and meningitis
  34. what is anaphylactic shock?
    a type of severe hyper sensitivity or allergic reaction
  35. what causes anaphylactic shock?
    allergies to insect stings, medicines or foods (nuts, berries, seafood, etc.)
  36. what is cardiogenic shock?
    occurs when the heart is damaged and unable to supply sufficient blood to the body.
  37. what causes cardiogenic shock?
    can be the end result of a heart attack or congestive heart failure.
  38. what causes hypovolemic shock?
    caused by severe blood and fluid loss, such as from traumatic bodily injury, which makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body.
  39. what causes neurogenic shock?
    caused by spinal cord injury, usually as a result of a traumatic accident or injury.
  40. what does CPR stand for?
    CardioPulmonary Resuscitation
  41. what is cpr?
    a combination of rescue breathing and chest compressions delivered to victims thought to be in cardiac arrest.
  42. why is cpr important?
    it can support a small amount of blood flow to the heart and brain to "buy time" until normal heart function is restored.
  43. what are the steps of cpr?
    circulation/ airway/ breathing. this was changed from airway/ breathing/ circulation because of the importance chest compressions have on successful victim resuscitation
  44. what is the survival chain?
    the key to survival for victims of cardiac arrest.
  45. how many steps are in the survival chain?
  46. what are the steps of the survival chain?
    recognition/ activation of cpr, chest compressions, AED/ defibrillator, rapid defibrillation, effective advanced life support (EMT's, ambulance), integrated post cardiac arrest care
  47. what does orm stand for?
    Operational Risk Management
  48. what is ORM?
    a systematic, decision making process used to identify and manage hazards, encompassing a 5 step process that requires constant review for new hazards or engineering controls available.
  49. what are the five steps of ORM?
    • Identify hazards
    • Assess hazards
    • Make risk decisions
    • Implement controls
    • Supervise
  50. what is the ORM instruction?
    OPNAVINST 3500.39
  51. How many classes of mishaps are there?
  52. What is a class A mishap?
    2 million dollars or more of damage, an injury or illness that causes death or permanent total disability.
  53. What is a class B mishap?
    $500,000 or more of damage but less than 2 million, or resulting in permanent partial disability, or 3 or more personnel are inpatient hospitalized.
  54. What is a Class C mishap?
    resulting in $50,000 or more but less than 500,000 in property damage, a non-fatal injury that causes any loss of time beyond the day or shift on which it occurred.
  55. What are the 6 items of ppe used on the flight line.
    Cranials, Eye protection, hearing protection, impact protection, gloves, and foot protection.
  56. What is chemical warfare?
    the use of chemical agents to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate personnel.
  57. What is a nerve agent?
    A liquid casualty agent that disrupts nerve impulses to the body while damaging body tissues. ex. Sarin, Tabun, Soman, and VX
  58. What is a Blister agent?
    Liquid or solid agent that can cause inflammation blisters and destruction of tissue. ex distilled mustard, lewisite, phosgen oxime, and levinstein mustard.
  59. What is a blood agent?
    Gaseous agent that attack enzymes carrying oxygen in the blood stream causing rapid breathing or choking. ex. hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride, and arsine
  60. What is a choking agent?
    Gaseous or liquid agent symptoms of which can include, tears, dry throat, nausea, vomiting, and headache. the lungs can become filled with fluid making the victim feel like they're drowning. ex. phosgene and diphosgene.
  61. What is m9 chemical paper?
    detects the presence of liquid chemical agent. by turning a red color.
  62. What is biological warfare?
    the use of agents to cause disease, sickness or death. there are two types of agents, pathogens, and toxins.
  63. What is a pathogen?
    agents used in biological warfare, including bacteria rickettsia, viruses, fungi, protozoa and prions.
  64. What kind of toxins are used in biological warfare?
    neurotoxins, cytotoxins, enterotoxins and dermatoxins.
  65. what makes up individual protective equipment for chemical/ biological warfare?
    Protective mask, advanced chemical protective garment. chemical protective gloves and liners, chemical protective overboots and laces, skin decontamination kit.
  66. What are the different kinds of nuclear explosions?
    High altitude, Air burst, Surface burst, shallow underwater burst, deep underwater burst.
  67. What are the two types of shipboard radiation shielding stations?
    Ready shelter and deep shelter.
  68. What is the dt-60 dosimeter?
    reads the total amount of gamma radiation the wearer is exposed to. 0-600 roentgens.
  69. What does mopp stand for?
    Mission Oriented Protective Posture
  70. How many mopp levels are there?
    five, level 0-4
  71. What is Mopp level 0?
    Issue IPE, accessible within five minutes.
  72. What is Mopp level 1?
    • Afloat- JSLIST, Mask, Gloves readily accessible
    • Ashore-don protective equipment, m9 tape
  73. What is Mopp level 2?
    • Afloat- Mask carried decon supplies stage
    • Ashore- Additional to level 1 don protective over boots
  74. What is mopp level 3?
    • Afloat- GQ, install filters, don over-boots
    • Ashore- fill canteens, activate decon stations
  75. What is Mopp level 4?
    • Afloat- don mask/ hood, gloves, circle william, countermeasure washdown.
    • Ashore- Gloves with liners, untie bow in retention cord, loop between legs and secure to web belt.
  76. What are the parts of the fire tetrahedron?
    oxygen, fuel, temperature, chain reaction of combustion process.
  77. How many classes of fires are there?
  78. What is a class alpha fire?
    burning of wood, cloth, textiles and fibrous materials, can be put out with water or afff
  79. what is a class bravo fire?
    burning of liquid petroleum products, can be put out with afff, halon 1211, purple k powder and c02
  80. What is a class charlie fire?
    an energized electrical fire. energized put out with co2, halon, pkp, and water in fog paterns. deenergized treat as a class a,b, or d fire.
  81. What is a class delta fire?
    burning of combustible metals such as magnesium and titanium, can be put out with large quantities of water in high velocity fog. apply from a safe distance or from behind shelter as small explosions can occur.
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eaws study guide