Human Anatomy Assessment Test Objectives

  1. 1. Describe the levels of organization in multicellular organisms starting with atoms and ending with organisms.
    Atoms,Molecules<organelles,cells,tissues, organs,systems,organisms
  2. Define the term homeostasis
    the maintenance of dynamic steady in the internal environment "strive for stability"
  3. Describe, in general terms, how negative and positive feedback mechanisms are used by organisms to maintain homeostasis.
    Neg/Pos feedback are the general mechanisms of nervous or hormonal regulation. Neg. Feedback provides stable,long term control.Pos. Feedback reinforces original deviation and causes rapid and temporary changes in a variable.
  4. State the basic units of the metric system for
    • Meter (m)
    • Gram (g)
    • Liter (l)
    • Degree Celsius(ºC)
    • Second (s)
  5. Describe why carbon is a versatile element and found in the structure of all biomolecules.
    Carbon has the ability to form large, complex and diverse molecules. (Having 4 outer electrons, it shares electrons with other atoms to form 4 covalent bonds with a variety of bond angles.)
  6. Identify the following functional groups and describe their properties: hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amine, phosphate, and sulfhydryl.
    • In a hydroxyl group (—OH), a hydrogen atom forms a polar covalent bond with an oxygen atom, which forms a polar covalent bond to the carbon skeleton.
    • • A carbonyl group (>CO) consists of an oxygen atom joined to the carbon skeleton by a double bond.
    • • A carboxyl group (—COOH) consists of a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom and a single bond to the oxygen of a hydroxyl group.
    • • An amino group (—NH2) consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and the carbon skeleton.
    • • A phosphate group (—OPO32−) consists of a phosphorus atom bound to four oxygen atoms (three with single bonds and one with a double bond).
    • • A sulfhydryl group (—SH) consists of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and to the backbone.
  7. Describe why carbon is a versatile element and found in the structure of all biomolecules.
    • Carbon is a versitale element and is found in many different chemical compounds, including those found in space. Carbon is versitale because it can form single, double, and triple bonds. It can also form chains, branched chains, and rings when connected to other carbon atoms.
    • It has 4 valence electrons (can have 4 bonds). This makes it extremely versatile which makes it a good choice to be the backbone for biological molecules.
Card Set
Human Anatomy Assessment Test Objectives
ACC anatomy