Shock - Book 4

  1. Metabolism
    The total changes that take place in an organism during physiological processes
  2. Glycosis
    The first stage in cellular breakdown - The cell breaks apart an energy source, commonly glucose, and releases a small amount of energy

    *Part of Cellular Metabolism*
  3. Anaerobic Metabolism
    The first stage in metabolism - which does NOT require oxygen - in which the breakdown of glucose (during glycolysis) produces pyruvic acid and yields limited energy
  4. Krebs Cycle
    Process of aerobic metabolism that uses carbohydrates, proteins, and fats to release energy for the body

    Also known as the - citric acid cycle
  5. Aerobic Metabolism
    The second stage of metabolism

    Requires the presence of oxygen, in which the breakdown of glucose (via the krebs cycle) yields a high amount of energy
  6. External Respiration
    The movement of oxygen from the alveolus to the red blood cells
  7. Internal respiration
    The movement of oxygen from the blood into the body cell
  8. Portal system
    Part of the circulatory system consisting of the veins that drain some of the digestive organs.

    The portal system delivers blood to the liver.
  9. Glucagon
    Enters circulation and causes the liver to increase glucose production and release it into bloodstream

    Def: Hormone that increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen to glucose
  10. Insulin
    Helps transport the large glucose molecules across cell membranes, thus reducing the amount of circulating blood glucose.

    Def: Pancreatic hormone needed to transport simple sugars from the interstitial space into the cells
  11. Histamine
    Short acting agent causes the sphincters to dilate and permit blood flow through the capillaries

    Def: Substance released during the degranulation of mast cells and basophils that increase blood flow to the injury site due to vasodilation and increased permeability of capillary walls
  12. Thoracoabdominal Pump
    Process by which respirations assist blood return to the heart
  13. Baroreceptor
    Sensory nerve ending that is stimulated by changes in pressure

    Found in: walls of the atria of the heart, vena cava, aortic arch and carotid sinus
  14. Chemoreceptors
    Sense organ or sensory nerve ending located outside the central nervous system - that is stimulated by and reacts to chemical stimuli
  15. Cardioacceleratory Center
    A sympathetic nervous system center int he medulla oblongata - controlling the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine
  16. Cardioinhibitory center
    A parasympathetic center in the medulla oblongata - controlling the vagus nerve
  17. Vagus Nerve
    The 10th cranial nerve that monitors and controls the heart, respiration, and much of the abdominal viscera
  18. Vasomotor Center
    A sympathetic center in the medulla oblongata that controls arterial and, to a degree, venous tone.
  19. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    Induces an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and causes kidneys to retain water, decreasing urine output and also causes splenic vascular constriction.

    Released by the posterior pituitary in response either to reduces blood pressure or the increased osmotic pressure of the blood (dehydration).
  20. Angiotensin
    Created by the kidneys during lowered blood pressure and decreased perfusion.

    It is a vasopressor hormone that causes contraction of the smooth muscles of the arteries and arterioles - produced when renin is released from the kidneys

    • Angiotensin I - Physiologically inactive form
    • Angiotensin II - Active form
  21. Aldosterone
    Def: Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases sodium reabsorption by the kidneys.

    Causes the kidney cells that maintain ion balance to retain sodium and water. Also reduces sodium and water loses through sweating and the digestive tract.

    Plays a part in regulation of blood volume, blood pressure and blood levels of potassium, chloride and biocarbonate.
  22. Glycogen
    A form of stored glucose

    A polysaccharide
  23. Glycogenolysis
    The process in which the body converts glycogen into glucose
  24. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
    Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that is essential to the function of the adrenal cortex, including production of glucocorticoids
  25. Glucocorticoids
    Hormones released by the adrenal cortex that - increases glucose production and reduces the body's inflammation process
  26. Growth Hormone
    Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that promotes the uptake of glucose and amino acids in the muscle cells

    and stimulates protein synthesis
  27. Erythropoietin
    One of a specialized group of proteins that is produces by the kidneys and spurs production of red blood cells in the bone marrow
  28. Ischemia
    A blockage in the delivery of oxygenated blood to the cells.
  29. Hydrostatic pressure
    The pressure of liquids in equilibrium - the pressure exerted by or within liquids
  30. Rouleaux
    A group of red blood cells stuck together

    (coagulated erythrocytes)
  31. Washout
    The release of accumulated lactic acid, carbon dioxide, potassium, and rouleaux into venous circulation
  32. Compensated Shock
    Initial shock state in which the body progressively compensates for continuing blood loss. The body is capable of meeting its critical metabolic needs through a series of progressive compensating actions.

    Hemodynamic insult to the body in which the body responds effectively.

    • - Pulse rate increases
    • - Pulse strength decreases
    • - Skin becomes cool and clammy
    • - Progressing anxiety, restlessness, combativeness
    • - Thirst, weakness and eventual air hunger

    Interventions are most likely to meet success.
  33. Decompensated Shock
    Begins as the body's compensatory mechanisms become unable to respond to a continuing blood loss. Can no longer maintain preload. Body is moving quickly towards complete collapse.

    • - Pule becomes unpalpable
    • - Blood pressure drops precipitously
    • - Patient becomes unconscious
    • - Respirations slow or cease

    Death live appearance.
  34. Irreversible Shock
    Final stage of shock in which organs and cells are so damaged that recovery is impossible.

  35. Hypovolemic Shock
    Shock caused by loss of blood or body fluids.

  36. Distributive Shock
    Results from mechanisms that prevent the appropriate distribution of nutrients and removal of waste products.

    - Mechanisms that interfere with the ability of the vascular system to distribute cardiac output.
  37. Anaphylactic Shock
    Form of distributive shock:

    Histamine causes general vasodilation, capillary engorgement, and fluid movement into the interstitial compartment.
  38. Septic Shock
    Form of distributive shock:

    Caused by massive infection in which toxins compromise the vascular system's ability to control blood vessels and distribute blood.
  39. Obstructive Shock
    Resulting from interference with the blood flowing through the cardiovascular system

    Include: tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, and pulmonary emboli.
  40. Cardiogenic Shock
    Resulting from failure to maintain the blood pressure because of inadequate cardiac output.
  41. Respiratory Shock
    Results from failure of the respiratory system to supply oxygen to the alveoli or remove CO2 from them.

    (Leaves pulmonary circulation without adequate oxygen and with excess of CO2.)
  42. Neurogenic Shock
    Resulting from an interruption in the communication pathway between the central nervous system and the rest of the body - leading to decreased peripheral vascular resistance.

    Spinal injury.
Card Set
Shock - Book 4
Shock - Book 4