The total changes that take place in an organism during physiological processes
The first stage in cellular breakdown - The cell breaks apart an energy source, commonly glucose, and releases a small amount of energy
*Part of Cellular Metabolism*
The first stage in metabolism - which does NOT require oxygen - in which the breakdown of glucose (during glycolysis) produces pyruvic acid and yields limited energy
Process of aerobic metabolism that uses carbohydrates, proteins, and fats to release energy for the body
Also known as the - citric acid cycle
The second stage of metabolism
Requires the presence of oxygen, in which the breakdown of glucose (via the krebs cycle) yields a high amount of energy
The movement of oxygen from the alveolus to the red blood cells
The movement of oxygen from the blood into the body cell
Part of the circulatory system consisting of the veins that drain some of the digestive organs.
The portal system delivers blood to the liver.
Enters circulation and causes the liver to increase glucose production and release it into bloodstream
Def: Hormone that increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen to glucose
Helps transport the large glucose molecules across cell membranes, thus reducing the amount of circulating blood glucose.
Def: Pancreatic hormone needed to transport simple sugars from the interstitial space into the cells
Short acting agent causes the sphincters to dilate and permit blood flow through the capillaries
Def: Substance released during the degranulation of mast cells and basophils that increase blood flow to the injury site due to vasodilation and increased permeability of capillary walls
Process by which respirations assist blood return to the heart
Sensory nerve ending that is stimulated by changes in pressure
Found in: walls of the atria of the heart, vena cava, aortic arch and carotid sinus
Sense organ or sensory nerve ending located outside the central nervous system - that is stimulated by and reacts to chemical stimuli
A sympathetic nervous system center int he medulla oblongata - controlling the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine
A parasympathetic center in the medulla oblongata - controlling the vagus nerve
The 10th cranial nerve that monitors and controls the heart, respiration, and much of the abdominal viscera
A sympathetic center in the medulla oblongata that controls arterial and, to a degree, venous tone.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Induces an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and causes kidneys to retain water, decreasing urine output and also causes splenic vascular constriction.
Released by the posterior pituitary in response either to reduces blood pressure or the increased osmotic pressure of the blood (dehydration).
Created by the kidneys during lowered blood pressure and decreased perfusion.
It is a vasopressor hormone that causes contraction of the smooth muscles of the arteries and arterioles - produced when renin is released from the kidneys
- Angiotensin I - Physiologically inactive form
- Angiotensin II - Active form
Def: Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases sodium reabsorption by the kidneys.
Causes the kidney cells that maintain ion balance to retain sodium and water. Also reduces sodium and water loses through sweating and the digestive tract.
Plays a part in regulation of blood volume, blood pressure and blood levels of potassium, chloride and biocarbonate.
A form of stored glucose
The process in which the body converts glycogen into glucose
Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that is essential to the function of the adrenal cortex, including production of glucocorticoids
Hormones released by the adrenal cortex that - increases glucose production and reduces the body's inflammation process
Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that promotes the uptake of glucose and amino acids in the muscle cells
and stimulates protein synthesis
One of a specialized group of proteins that is produces by the kidneys and spurs production of red blood cells in the bone marrow
A blockage in the delivery of oxygenated blood to the cells.
The pressure of liquids in equilibrium - the pressure exerted by or within liquids
A group of red blood cells stuck together
The release of accumulated lactic acid, carbon dioxide, potassium, and rouleaux into venous circulation
Initial shock state in which the body progressively compensates for continuing blood loss.
The body is capable of meeting its critical metabolic needs through a series of progressive compensating actions.
Hemodynamic insult to the body in which the body responds effectively.
- - Pulse rate increases
- - Pulse strength decreases
- - Skin becomes cool and clammy
- - Progressing anxiety, restlessness, combativeness
- - Thirst, weakness and eventual air hunger
Interventions are most likely to meet success.
Begins as the body's compensatory mechanisms become unable to respond to a continuing blood loss
. Can no longer maintain preload. Body is moving quickly towards complete collapse.
- - Pule becomes unpalpable
- - Blood pressure drops precipitously
- - Patient becomes unconscious
- - Respirations slow or cease
Death live appearance.
Final stage of shock in which organs and cells are so damaged that recovery is impossible.
Shock caused by loss of blood or body fluids.
Results from mechanisms that prevent the appropriate distribution of nutrients and removal of waste products.
- Mechanisms that interfere with the ability of the vascular system to distribute cardiac output.
Form of distributive shock:
Histamine causes general vasodilation, capillary engorgement, and fluid movement into the interstitial compartment.
Form of distributive shock:
Caused by massive infection in which toxins compromise the vascular system's ability to control blood vessels and distribute blood.
Resulting from interference with the blood flowing through the cardiovascular system
Include: tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, and pulmonary emboli.
Resulting from failure to maintain the blood pressure because of inadequate cardiac output.
Results from failure of the respiratory system to supply oxygen to the alveoli or remove CO2 from them.
(Leaves pulmonary circulation without adequate oxygen and with excess of CO2.)
Resulting from an interruption in the communication pathway between the central nervous system and the rest of the body - leading to decreased peripheral vascular resistance.