Characteristics of Life
Mrs. C Gren (move, respire, sense, cells, grow, reproduce, excrete, nutrition)
- All organisms are composed of cells.
- The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms.
- Cells come from pre-existing cells
- nuclear division that makes exact copies of the bodies cells.
- PMAT - (Prophase,Metaphase,Anaphase,Telophase)
cell parts and types of cells
cell parts (organelles)
- Cell membrane:regulates what goes in and out of the cell.
- Cell Wall:structure of a plant cell.
- Nucleus:controls functions of cells and contains genetic material
- Cytoplasm:fluid that surround a plants organells
- Mitochondrion:converts energy into food for the cell
- Chloroplast:Where photosynthesis happens
- Vacuole (storage)
- Plant cells differ from animals in structure and function from:
- Cell walls
- large vacuoles
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms
Functions of systems
- Circulatory:keeps blood,oxygen,and nutrients flowing through the body.
- Respiratory:to take in oxygen for the body and spit out carbon dioxide.
- Digestive:Turning food into energy for the body.
- Nervous:send signals from one cell to another to make the body work.
- Excretory:rid the body of wastes.
- Skeletal:frame for the body.
- Muscular:permits movement of the body.
- Integumentary:protects the body from damage.
- Endocrine:secretes hormones into the blood stream.
- Reproductive:creates an offspring to carry on life of that species.
- Immune:protects body form viruses
Internal and External stimuli
- response to stimuli:
- Presence of light(phototropism,pupil dialotion)
- Presence or absence of heat(shivering,sweating/panting,transpiration)
- Fear(fight or flight)
- Hereditary:passing of genetic instructions from one generation to the next.
- Genetic material is given form only one parent.
- Offspring are identical (uniform) to the parent and to each other.
- Disadvantages-lack of diversity decreases chances of survival of species
- Genetic material is donated from two parents
- Genetic material from two parents allows for more genetic variation in the offspring
- Offspring differ from each parent and from each other.
- Advantages-diversity increases chances of survival of species
- Dominant vs. Recessive
- Genotypes vs. Phenotypes
- Homozygous vs. Heterozygous
Cells (Genetic Material)
- Inherited traits of organisms are passed from parents to the offspring through genes
- Genes code for dominant and recessive traits
- Genes determine traits
- Genes are composed of DNA
Use dichotomous keys
to identify organisms (leaves and/or insects) based on their structures.
Variation within a population or species
- External features and physiology (animal examples: appendages, mouth structures, camouflage) (Plant examples: storage of food in a bulb, types of roots, types of leaves, seed dispersal, attraction of pollinators)
- Behaviors (migration, hibernation, phototropism, geotriopism)
Recognize changes in genetic traits through:
- Natural selection
- Galapagos Iguanas
- Galapagos Medium Finch (size and shape of beaks)
- Selective breeding (domestic animals)