Thinning softening of bones.
Caused by water loss in the intervertebral disks of the spinal columns and flexion of the spine associated with gravity over time.
Age related changes in the integumentary system
- Increase dry skin.
- increase pigmentation, causing liver or age spots.
- thinning skin, more fragile.
- decrease skin elasticity, causing wrinkles.
- decrease subcutaneous fat layers, causing less insulation and less protective cushioning.
- hard dry nails, brittle.
- decrease nail growth and strength.
- thin hair, mostly men.
- increase growth and coarseness of nose ear and facial hair.
- decrease melanin, result grey hair.
- decrease sebaceous and sweat glands which has implications for dryness and decreased temperature regulation.
older patient with limited mobility
Early signs of pressure ulcer formation
are warmth redness tenderness and burning sensation at the potential ulcer site
Age related changes in the cardiovascular system
- slow heart rate. 60bts/min over 100/tachy.
- decrease cardiac output from less effective function tipping of the heart and blood vessels, yielding less oxygen to body tissues.
- Reduced ability of the heart to quickly increase its rate in response to an emergency because of thickening of the heart valves, left ventricles, and aorta (when does increase, the heart takes longer to return to resting rate.)
- more arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), which lead to poor oxygenation of the heart.
- Commonly, a lack of classic symptoms pod cardiac emergencies.
- increased peripheral vascular resistance in blood vessels, yielding increased blood pressure.
- more visible superficial blood vessels of the legs.
- less efficient leg vein valves, creating the risk for an accumulation of excess fluids in the leg tissues.
- Tooth loss is not a normal part of aging.
- let pt self feed For independence.
- Pt aware of incontinence, decrease leakage by limiting fluids. Can result in dehydration which disturbs the acid base balance and electrolytes of the body. Results diarrhea, vomiting, weakness, confusion.
- try legal exercises(perineal muscle support) and bathroom every 2hrs.
- Slow response to stimuli.
- decrease blood flow and oxygen loss of brain cells.
- decrease sensitivity and sensation pathways.
- decrase reaction time And motor coordination.
- decrease equilibrium.
- decrease of hypothalamus to regulate body temp.
- change in neurotransmitter secretion level.
See in dark
Red night light because red lighting is easily detected by the cods and rods in the older pt eyes.