What do lymph vessels do?
Transport lymph fluid which contains lymphocytes, macrophages, antigens, and collects excess fluid from the body tissues.
is transported to the lymph nodes where antigens are processed and killed.
removes antigens that circulate in the lymph fluid and blood.
is an immunological filter of the blood. Contains B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, RBC'S. Phagocytes engulf and destroy worn out or damaged RBC'S. Filters and removes bacteria/antigens. Stores blood and platelets.
What are the four types of T cells?
- Cytotoxic T cells
- Helper T cells
- Activated helper T cells
- Suppressor T cells
Inappropriate excessive immune response.
Inappropriate response to self
Immunity to an alloantigen. Can occur after an allograph (transplant of body tissue) or allotransfusion (plasma, immunogloblin).
Pathophysiology of lymphodema
Lymphodema occurs when the lymph system is damaged or blocked. Fluid builds up in soft body tissues and causes swelling.
What are the two types of lymphodema?
Primary lymphedema is caused by the abnormal development of the lymph system. Symptoms may occur at birth or later in life.
Secondary lymphedema is caused by damage to the lymph system. The lymph system may be damaged or blocked by infection, injury, cancer, removal of lymph nodes, radiation to the affected area, or scar tissue from radiation therapy or surgery.
What are the signs and symptoms of Lymphodema?
- Swelling in affected area
- Feeling of fullness or tightness in limb
- Aching, pain
- Trouble sleeping
- Thickening of the skin
What is hypersensitivity type 1: Anaphylaxis?
- An abnormal/hyper reactivity to a normal stimulus.
- Abnormal or pathological immune reaction that is caused by an immune response usually to a repeated exposure to an antigen.
What is happening in the body.
- Deregulation of mast cells and release of chemical mediators (heparin and histamine).
- Vasodilation and smooth muscle contraction.
- Increased capillary permeability
- Urticaria (hives)
- Respiratory distress
- fluid shift
- Vascular collapse
- Onset-Delay of 5 to 30 minutes
- Skin-Red raised itchy rash, swelling
- Respiratory-Noisy, maybe wheezy
- Cardiovascular-Tachycardia, hypertension
- GI-Abnormal cramps
- Neurological-Loss of consciousness, little response once prone.
Adrenaline, O2, IV access, fluid replacement, antihistamines, hydrocortisone.
- Adrenaline 1:1000
- Adult and child >12 = 0.5mg IM
- Child 6-12 = 0.3mg IM
- Child 6 months to 6 years = 0.15mg IM
- Infant >6 months = 0.01mg IM
- Can repeat the dose at 5 minute intervals