Kaplan CSET History Vocabulary.txt

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  1. Aqueduct
    a man-made channel constructed to convey water from one location to another
  2. Bear Flag Revolt
    a brief attempt at the beginning of the Mexican-American war to establish an independent California republic
  3. Bushido
    the code of knights in feudal Japan, the equivalent of chivalry in Europe
  4. California's Mission System
    a "sacred expedition" in which twenty-one Spanish Catholic missions were established spaced to be a single day's travel apart on El Camino Real (The Royal Road)
  5. Californios
    residents of the rancho system in California just before the Mexican-American War, mainly composed of Mexican citizens who identified more as Californios than as Mexicans
  6. Capitalism
    an economic system regulated by the state that encourages the accumulation of wealth and property by individuals
  7. Caste
    a division of society based on difference of wealth, inherited rank or privilege, profession, or occupation
  8. Central Valley Project (CVP)
    a federal water project undertaken by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1935 as a long-term plan to effectively use water in California's Central valley
  9. Checks and Balances
    written into the Constitution, this concept is one of the cornerstones of our republic, encompassing three branches of government and a system forthem to act as watchdogs for the others
  10. circumnavigate
    to sail completely around the Earth
  11. Code of Hammurabi
    The first known written legal code, developed in ancient Babylon, predated the Justinian Code by about 2,000 years
  12. Communism
    an economic system in which the state controls the means of production and distributes the profits
  13. Conquistadores
    Spanish explorers that sought riches in Central and South America, establishing colonies along the way
  14. Daimyo
    Japanese feudal lord
  15. Democratic-Republican party
    one of the first two political parties in the United States, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Morison; opposed the Federalist party and was strongly in favor of individuals rights
  16. Economics
    a social science dealing with the production, distribution, and consumption of good and services
  17. Emancipation Proclamation
    a proclamation made by President Lincoln in 1863 freeing all slaves in regions still fighting against the Union
  18. Executive Branch
    a branch of the system of checks and balances that sees that the country's laws are executed
  19. Federalism
    a system of government consisting of a number of self-governing regions (states) united by central (federal) government
  20. Federalist Papers
    a series of articles written in 1787 by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and JOhn Jay to gain popular support for the then-proposed Constition
  21. Feudalism
    a social, economic, and political system in which power is decentralized, and a varying number of lords hold land on which they allow others to live and work in return for loyalty and service
  22. Fief
    land held by lords under the feudal system
  23. Forty-niners
    nickname for the influx of people that arrived in California, starting in 1849, in search for gold
  24. Free-soilers
    a minor but influential political party in the pre-Civil War period that opposed the extension of slavery in the western territories.
  25. Gentleman's Agreement
    a 1907 treaty with Japan that allowed wives to join their husbands in the US on the condition that the Japanese government deny exit visas to any men wishing to emigrate to the states
  26. Great Awakening
    a religious revival in the colonies during the first part of the eighteenth century
  27. Great Compromise
    a decision made by the Constitutional Congress splitting Congress into two houses, one based on population (House of Representatives), and one based on equal representation (the Senate)
  28. Hunter/gatherer societies
    an early society in which men hunted for meat and women gathered more readily available food
  29. Initiative
    a process that gives individual citizens, or groups of citizens, the power to place a proposed law on a ballot
  30. Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
    British reaction to the Boston Tea Party, including more rigid restrictions on colonial town meetings and other harsh penalites
  31. Judicial Branch
    a branch of the system of checks and balances that interprets Congressional laws
  32. Justinian Code
    considered to be the basis for the justice system in use throughout much of the western world, including the US
  33. Land Commission
    established to settle the Californios' land claims during the first few years of California's statehood
  34. Law of supply and demand
    a basic economical principle stating that if supply is greater than demand, the value of the product is lower, if demand is greater than supply, than the value is higher
  35. Legislative Branch
    a branch of the system of checks and balances that makes Congressional laws
  36. Louisiana Purchase
    1803 purchase made by President Thomas Jefferson that essentially doubled the US territory
  37. Manifest destiny
    an 1845 phrase encapsulating the American vision of western expansion
  38. Mercantilism
    the practice of state regulation and control of an economy
  39. Missouri Compromise
    1820 legislation that tried to resolve the conflicts raised by the addition of new territories as either slave or non-slave owning areas
  40. Monotheisism
    the worship of only one god
  41. Nullification
    a concept espoused by southerners following the Missouri Compromise that would have given southern states the right to refuse to obey laws they did not agree with
  42. "Octopus"
    a term used to describe the Central Pacific Railroad's monopoly for having an arm in practically every sector of California's commerce
  43. Pilgrims
    a religious group who had broken away from the Church of England, first relocating to Holland to escape persecution, then setting sail in the fall of 1620 to become the first settlers to arrive in Massachusetts
  44. Popular sovereignity
    a direct democracy
  45. Presidio
    forts built by the Spanish to offer protection to California's missionaries and settlers during periods of violent revolts by native workers
  46. Pueblos
    towns based around California's missions and presidios, built around a church and a town square
  47. Rancho System
    a land allotment system defined by a few large landowners and many landless workers
  48. Recall
    a mechanism for ending an elected official's tenure before its scheduled completion
  49. Reconstruction
    President Lincoln's first priority after the Civil War to reconcile the warring sides and rebuild areas affected by war
  50. Referendum
    a statute or amendment that has passe the state legislature, which is then placed on a ballot for approval by the electorate
  51. Reincarnation
    a religious belief in which, after physical death, a rebirth in another body occurs; a central tenet of Hinduism, among other religions
  52. Relocation Camps
    internment camps that held people of Japanese descent during WWII
  53. Renaissance
    a French word meaning rebirth; the name given to the flowering of European culture at the end of the Medieval Period
  54. Secession
    the self-given right of seven states of the lower South to leave the Union if they so desired
  55. Separate but equal
    a philosophy, along with election rules, that was designed to deny blacks the right to vote after reconstruction ended
  56. serf
    peasants who work on land in a feudal system
  57. Shogun
    in feudal Japan, the equivalent of a medieval European king
  58. Silicon Valley
    a nickname for the southern part of the san Francisco Bay Area in northern California, originally referring to the concentration of  silicon chip innovators and manufacturers, but eventually referring to the entire concentration of all types of high-tech businesses
  59. Socialism
    an economic system in which workers control the means of production and share in the profits of their labor
  60. Ten Percent Plan
    a plan created by President Lincoln before his assassination, and carried out by his successor, Andrew Johnson, stating that a state could be readmitted to the Union if ten percent of the former Confederates in the state who had voted in the 1860 election vowed loyalty to the union
  61. Three-fifth Compromise
    an initial rule in the Constitution stating that in state population counts, each slave would count for three-fifths of a free person
  62. Vassal
    the equivalent of a knight in the feudal system
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Kaplan CSET History Vocabulary.txt
Kaplan CSET History Vocabulary.txt
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