Kaplan CSET History Section.txt

  1. Which of the following describes the geographical setting in which early civilization was most likely to emerge?

    A) an open grassy plain with plenty of room and food for livestock

    B) Rolling hills that provided vantage points from which to scout for enemy invasions

    C) A temperate river delta that flooded regularly, resulting in fertile soil for crops

    D) Dense jungle with edible plants game enough for hunting and gathering
    C) A temperate river delta that flooded regularly, resulting in fertile soil for crops

    The earliest civilizations were in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These rivers provided ideal conditions for agriculture to emerge, and regular crops provided enough respite from hunting and gathering that people could devote time and attention to the pursuits of civilization- art, religion, learning- that require leisure time.
  2. Which of the following groups of Middle Eastern tribes are credited with bringing the concept of monotheism to the world.

    A) Hebrews

    B) Egyptians

    C) Kush

    D) Persians
    A) Hebrews

    Today's Jews worship the one God their Hebrew ancestors worshipped 3,000 year ago. Christians and Muslims derived their monotheistic concepts from the Jewish Philosophy of one god.
  3. The tenets below are most accurately attributed to which of the following religions belief systems?

    A) Buddhism

    B) Islam

    C) Confucianism

    D) Hinduism

    I. belief in reincarnation
    II. practice a caste system, with four socials groups, memberships in which is determined by birth
    III. drive to attain enlightenment, which brings freedom from rebirth
    IV. belief in the concept of karma, that one's fate is earned by one's past deeds
    D) Hinduism

    Hinduism and Buddhism share the belief in karma, enlightenment, and reincarnation; however, Hinduism, unlike Buddhism, also practices the caste system.
  4. Which of the following modern disciplines was NOT influenced by the civilization of ancient Greece?

    A) philosophy

    B) Anthropology 

    C) Theater

    D) Mathematics
    B) Anthropology

    Anthropology, the study of people, was not founded as a discipline until the twentieth century.
  5. Which of the following empires splintered from the Egyptian empire and established a vigorous trade in precious metals, while retaining many characteristics of Egyptian civilization?

    A) Phoenician

    B) Mayan

    C) Babylonian

    D) Kush
    D) Kush

    Originally dominated for centuries, both politically and culturally, by the Egyptians, the people of Kush, now know as Sudan, became and powerful force around 750 BCE. Within its borders they possessed large amounts of gold, emerald, and iron deposits. They also had enough timber to process these resources.
  6. Which of the following was a contributing factor to the decline of the Roman Empire?

    A) the size of the empire forced the hiring of mercenaries for its defense forces.

    B) the empire's public education system failed for lack of tax revenues

    C) corruption invalidated the results of Roman elections

    D) widespread starvation made the people receptive to new leadership
    A) the size of the empire forced the hiring of mercenaries for its defense forces.

    Rome overextended its empire, necessitating the use of mercenaries, whose loyalties tend not to run past the last paycheck. Additional, it suffered from political instability and relied heavily on tributes from the people it conquered.
  7. Which line in the table below correctly places terminology from both Japanese feudalism European feudalism?

    Line|Japanese Feudalism|European Feudalism
     1  |        peasants        |          serfs           
     2  |        daimyo          |        shogun          
     3  |        samurai         |        vassals            
     4  |        chivalry          |        bushido          
    line 3

    Parallels between japanese Feudalism and European Feudalism: King = Shogun, Lord = Daimyo, Vassal/knight = Samurai, Chivalry = Bushido
  8. Which of the following was the most powerful and wealthy force in medieval Europe?

    A) Church

    The Roman Catholic Church was wealthier and more powerful than any individual lord or king in medieval Europe.
  9. Which of the following was primarily responsible for the introduction of spices and other Asian goods to medieval Europe?

    C) the Crusades

    For almost two hundred years, starting around 1100 CE, wave after wave of Crusaders left Europe for the Middle East, in an attempt to free Jerusalem from the Muslims. While they were on their journeys, they learned about spices from India that deliciously masked the flavors and aromas of spoiled meat.
  10. Which of the following geographical features were the French searching for in their early exploration of North America?

    A) The St. Lawrence River

    B) The Great Lakes

    C) The Northwest Passage

    D) The Pacific Ocean
    C) The Northwest Passage

    Jacques Cartier was the first French explorer to search for the fabled Northwest Passage to India. He sailed up the St. Lawrence River, laying claim to the land on behalf of France.
  11. Which of the following Native American empires covered a land area characterized by diverse geographical features, from jungle coastline to highlands, with widespread and often competing power centers?

    A) Aztec

    B) Maya

    C) Inca

    D) Iroquois
    B) Maya

    The Maya controlled a far-flung empire that ranged from the jungles of the Yucatan to the mountains of Guatemala. Although probably more cooperative in the past, when the Spanish arrived there was intense power struggles between the various areas of the empire and their corresponding rulers.
  12. Which of the following best expresses one reason slavery became entrenched in the souther colonies prior to the Revolutionary War but never took hold in the northern colonies?

    A) The southern colonies were settled primarily by Spain, which had no moral qualms about slaver; but the English, who abhorred slaver, settled in the north.

    B) The southern colonies were settled primarily as penal colonies, with an anything goes attitude; but the northern colonies were more strictly governed by England.

    C) Geographically speaking, the southern colonies were closer to the route the slave traders took from Africa; so southern slaver was more economically feasible.

    D) The geography of the norther colonies was less conductive to highly labor-intensive cash crop agriculture than were the southern colonies.
    D) The geography of the norther colonies was less conductive to highly labor-intensive cash crop agriculture than were the southern colonies.

    Those who settled in the New England and Mid-Atlantic colonies did not see slavery as a righteous institution. Those who settled the southern colonies tended to be more interested in furthering their economic status.
  13. Which of the following pairs of colonies BEST reflect truly tolerant havens for religious freedom, rather than being devoted to the practice of only one brand of religion?

    B) Rhode Island and Pennsylvania

    Roger Williams was expelled from Massachusetts for disagreeing with its religious leaders. He made his way to Rhode Island and established that colony as the first to recognize the separation of church and state.
  14. The Proclamation of 1763 was an unpopular edict that le to further unrest in the British Colonies. Which of the following best represents the content of this proclamation?

    A) Colonist were forbidden to move west of the Appalachian Mountains.

    B) Colonists were required to pay for the housing of British troops.

    C) Colonists were required to pay taxes on many imported goods.

    D) Colonists were required to sign oaths of loyalty to the English king.
    A) Colonist were forbidden to move west of the Appalachian Mountains.

    after the end of the French and Indian War, England wanted to avoid angering the Native Americans in the newly acquired Ohio Valley and to keep the colonists where they could be controlled more easily The proclamation was the first in a string of edicts that inflamed rebellion.
  15. Which cause and effect statement is most accurate?

    A) The battle of Concord cased massive defection of British troops.

    B) The Battle of Saratoga  persuaded France to ally with the revolutionaries.

    C) By Crossing the Delaware they were able to capture badly needed food supplies for starving revolutionary army. 

    D) The Battle of Yorktown decimated revolutionary troops and prolonged the war.
    B) The Battle of Saratoga  persuaded France to ally with the revolutionaries.

    The Battle of Saratoga was a decisive victory for the revolutionaries and was all the impetus the French needed to join cause with the rebels against the British. This alliance proved to be major turning point in the war.
  16. Which of the following sums up the reasons the Articles of Confederation proved inadequate governing documents for the newly formed United States?

    A) They concentrated too much poer in the hands of too few.

    B) They did not adequately protect the interestes of minorities.

    C) They gave the federal government too few powers.

    D)They did not give women the right to vote.
    C) They gave the federal government too few powers.

    Among the powers not granted to the federal government in the Articles of Confederation were the ability to raise money from the states (hence, no money to spend), the ability to regulate interstate trade, and the ability to conduct national foreign policy.
  17. The concept of Manifest Destiny, which was popular in the nineteenth century, is best exemplified by which of the following U.S. actions?

    A) The Louisiana Purchase

    B) The impeachment of Pres. Andrew Johnson

    C) The Civil War

    D) The Mexican-American War
    D) The Mexican-American War

    In 1845 a newspaper editor coined the phrase Manifest Destiny. Those two words described the American people's vision of themselves as destined to spread their political philosophy throughout the hemisphere.
  18. After President Lincoln's assassination, his vice president, Andrew Johnson, became president. His plans for reconstruction of the Confederate states failed for which of the following reasons?

    A) Congress thought Johnson's reconstruction plan too lenient on the south.

    B) The Confederate states refused to grant full rights to the freed slaves.

    C) The KKK organized effective resistance to reconstruction efforts.

    D) Lincoln's supporters inCongress blocked efforts to brin the Confederate states back into the Union.
    A) Congress thought Johnson's reconstruction plan too lenient on the south.

    Johnson proposed a Ten Percent Plan, under which a state could be readmitted to the Union if ten percent of the former rebels in the state vowed loyalty to the Union, but the so called Radical Republicans blocked his plans, and then impeached him.
  19. Which of the following was a staple of the diet of the majority of California's Indians?

    D) Acorns

    California's Indian tribes lived in a diverse array of habitats. They were hunters and gatherers, most of whom did not practice agriculture. Their various environments possessed plentiful fish and games as well as numerous plant foods.
  20. Which of the following was the primary reason Spain decided in 1768 to establish missions in California?

    A) Father serra persuaded the king to help him save the natives' souls.

    B) Juan Cabrillo had found evidence of gold deposits near the coast.

    C) Jose de Galvez convinced the king it was urgent to establish settlements before the English did.

    D) The Spanish king wanted to expand the territories he would leave to his sons.
    C) Jose de Galvez convinced the king it was urgent to establish settlements before the English did.

    Jose de Galvez was the Visor General of New Spain. Although England had shown little interest in the land the Spanish called Alta California, he persuaded the king that Spain needed to settle the land in order to prevent the English from trying to claim the territory.
  21. Which of the following activities was introduced by the Spanish missionaries and later became a major economic force in California?

    D) Agriculture

    The missionaries brought olive trees and orange trees with them when they came up from what is now Mexico. They also introduced wheat and barley to the area. Prior to their arrival, the California Indians did not practice extensive agriculture.
  22. California's native peoples begun, after a time, to rebel against the conditions of their labor on the mission farms. Which of the following was the Spanish response to their revolts?

    A) build presidios

    A presidio is a fort. As the Amerindian revolts grew in frequency and intensity, the Spanish inhabitants of the missions and the nearby pueblos (towns) began to retreat to the newly-constructed presidios fro protection.
  23. Which of the following accurately describes a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?

    A) the freedom of Mexico from Spanish rule

    B) the U.S. acquisition of land from Mexico

    C) the establishment of and independent California

    D) the end of the Bear Flag Rebellion
    B) the U.S. acquisition of land from Mexico

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo marked the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848. Under the terms of the treaty, the US acquired much land that ha previously belonged to Mexico, including California. Mexico gained independence in 1821.
  24. Which of the following groups became most wealthy as a result of the Gold Rush?

    B) merchants

    From the merchant who bought up all the digging supplies prior to publicizing the gold discover, to Levi Strauss, who made his first denim pants for the miners, the ones who really made money from the gold rush were the merchants.
  25. Which of the following best states the purpose of the Land Commission in the years following California statehood?

    A) to adjudicate the conflicts between Californios and U.S. settlers who took their ranchos

    B) to settle disputes between California Indians and miners who had settled on their claims

    C) to help settlers establish homesteads on vacant California land

    D) to resolve discrepancies in court records from the days of Mexican rule
    A) to adjudicate the conflicts between Californios and U.S. settlers who took their ranchos

    Following statehood in 1850, many of the wealthy Californios who had been granted large ranchos by the Mexican government lost their land to squatters who felt that they had the right to take land belonging to “Mexicans.” They had been promised they could keep the land when it became part of the US.
  26. Which of the following was the monopolistic industry that became known as "the octopus" at the end of the nineteenth century?

    D) the railroad

    When the company that would become the Southern Pacific Railroad persuaded Congress to provide assistance in building the transcontinental railroad, they took a huge risk. Congress rewarded the company, and its east coast counterpart, vast quantities of land along the rail right-of-way. This, coupled with the monopoly the company enjoyed on all California rail transport, gave SPR enormous wealth, power, and the nickname, “Octopus.”
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Kaplan CSET History Section.txt
Kaplan CSET History Section.txt