Physical Exam

  1. Three parts of physical exam
    TPR, Auscultation, Palpation
  2. TPR
    Tempurature, pulse, respiration

    All hospitalized PT should have vitals monitered at least once per day, more depending on health status
  3. Temperature
    normal dog and cat 101.5 +/- a degree

    excitement can cause a slightly elevated temperature
  4. Hyperthermia
    104 degrees and above
  5. causes of hyperthermia
    • systemic disease(bacterial infection, inflammation)
    • Neurological injury (cerebral edema, brain tumor, tumors)
    • Heat stroke
  6. hyperthermia results in
    • Increased tissue o2 requirement
    • vasodialation to release body heat
    • cardiac workload increases
    • Damage to vascular cells leading to dissemiated intravascular coagulation
  7. treating hyperthermia
    • Cool with fans or cool compresses
    • Avoid cold or ice, can caise vasoconstriction
    • IV fluid threapy with cool liquids
    • Cool water enemas
  8. Hypothermia
    99 degrees or less
  9. causes of hypothermia
    • certain drugs, such as anesthesia
    • very young puppies and kittens, less then one month old
    • Environmental
  10. hypothermia results in
    • reduced metabolic rate
    • decreased o2 consumption
    • decreased abilitly of hemoglobin to release o2 to tissues
    • peripheral vasoconstriction
    • hypotension
    • decreased GI mobility
  11. treating hypothermia
    • warm blankets
    • warm water bottles
    • heating lamp
    • -moniter closely for burns
    • Circulating warm water blankets
    • -less chance of accidental burns
    • warmed IV fliuds
  12. Pulse
    • Taken from and Artery, not a vein
    • Femoral artery is best for dogs and cats
    • --medial aspect of thigh, proximal to stifle
    • count beats for 15 sec, then multiply by 4 to get BPM
  13. Normal BPM rate for cats
    140-240 BPM
  14. normal BPM for dogs
    • less then 30 lbs 160-180 BPM
    • more then 30 lbs 60-160 BPM
  15. thready pulse
    weak, could be due to shock or cardiapulmonary disease
  16. bounding pulse
    strong, could be due to stress, pain, or cardiopulmonary disease
  17. Bradycardia
    pulse slower then normal

    can lead to decreased carsiac output which can lead to tissue hypoxia, organ failure, and death
  18. causes of bradycardia
    • hypothermia
    • drugs
    • metabolic disorders such as hypothyroidism
  19. Tachycardia
    • rate is faster then normal
    • can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure
  20. causes of tachycardia
    • pain
    • shock
    • stress
    • excitement
    • fever
    • drugs
  21. respirations
    watch the chest for expansion and contractions

    best to do before procedure while animal is still calm

    note if labored breathing or panting
  22. Normal BPM/RPM for cats
    20-30 BPM/RPM
  23. normal BPM/RPM for dogs
    15-30 BPM/RPM
  24. Tachpnea
    shallow rapid breathing

    pain, hyperthermia, stress
  25. treatment for tachypnea
    minimize stress, give oxygen, treat shock

    upper airway obstruction-sedations, palpate, radiographs, remove obstruction


    Pulmonary disease- give oxygen, fluid therapy for dehydration
  26. Dyspnea
    difficult breathing

    • upper airway disease
    • lower airway disease
    • Restrictive airway disease
  27. MM (Mucous Membrane)
    Gingival, Conjunctical

    • Pink-Normal
    • Cyanotic- BLue
    • Yellow- Jaundice
    • Pale/White- shock or hemhorrage
  28. CRT (capillary refill time)
    apply index finger and release

    should take 1-2 seconds to return to normal

    • more then 2 seconds
    • cardiac disease
    • shock
    • dehydration
  29. Auscultation
    listening with Stethascope to different body cavity sounds

    cardiovascular and repritory
  30. Stethoscope
    • Bell-used for bowel sounds
    • Diaphragm- used to listen to heart
  31. listening to heart
    place stethoscope on left side of chest and below elbow
  32. heart murmur
    • abnormal blood flow through heart
    • cardiac disease
  33. arrhythimia
    abnormal rhythm of heart beat

    • auscultation of ECG
    • may be due to abnormal conduction of energy throughout the heart
  34. Normal sinus arrhythmia
    • Irregularity is related to respiratory cycle
    • speeds up in inspiration and slows down durin expiration
    • normal in dogs only
  35. pulse deficit
    when pulse and heart rate do not match when taken simultaneously
  36. Respiratory system
    normal lung sounds: nothing, or slight air movement, includes both sides of the chest cavity and trachea
  37. Stridor
    wheezing sound on inspiration due to obstruction of the trachea
  38. crackles and rales
    • sounds like cellophane cracking
    • usually hear with pneumonia or pulmonary edema
  39. abnormalities
    stridor, crackles and rales
  40. Palpation
    • application of touch
    • takes lots of practice
  41. palpation on head
    check for lumps and bumps
  42. palpation on eyes
    redness, discharge, pupil size..are they the same
  43. palpation of ears
    • check pinna for inflammation
    • discharge, redness, odor...yeast may smell fruity
    • signs of mites, fleas, or hematoma
  44. palpation of nose
    • any discharge
    • clear or purulent is sign of infection
  45. palpation of mouth
    tumors or sores, tongue, gums, check for calculus on teeth
  46. palpation on neck
    lymph nodes

    • palpable lymph nodes
    • -mandibular (behind jaw, grape to pea sized)
    • -prescapular (cranial dorsal to shoulder, pea to grape)
    • -popliteal (in fat pad caudel to stifle)

    auxillary and inguinal not palable unless enlarged
  47. Palpation of extremities
    • each leg and tail
    • digets and in between
    • check nails
  48. palpation of chest/thorax
    • lumps or bumps on spine?
    • hair quality
    • skin quality
    • external parasites
  49. palpation of abdomen
    check for tenderness, check bladder
  50. palpation of reproductive areas
    penis should be extruded from prepuce

    females: check vulva for redness, discharge
Card Set
Physical Exam
dogs and cats