Pharmacology Midterm Review

  1. What is the most common route of drug administration?
    • Enteral
    • Oral: pills
    • Sublingual: put under tongue
    • Rectal: makes you poop
  2. What are the physical factors influencing drug absorption?
    • Blood Flow to area
    • Total area for absorption
    • Contact time of area
  3. What can cross the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)?
    • Lipid soluble things
    • Transport System
    • *Placenta also has a barrier but some drugs can pass through and cause harmful effects
  4. Which organs are involved with drug excretion?
    • Kidneys
    • Biliary Tract / feces
    • Other: breathing out, sweating, saliva, tears, breast milk
    • *Kidney is most important for excretion
  5. Which organs are involved with drug metabolism?
    • Liver
    • Lungs
    • Kidney
    • Adrenal Glands
    • *Liver is most important
    • *P450 metabolizes drugs entering Liver
  6. What are the Therapeutic uses of Epinephrine?
    • Treat Bronchospasm
    • Allergies (hypersensitivity / anaphylactic shock)
    • Prolong duration of inflitrative anesthesia (protection from EPF)
    • Restore cardiac activity in cardiac arrest
    • Aqueous drainage in chronic open-angle glaucoma (drain damp from eyes)
  7. What are adverse effects of Epinephrine?
    • Anxiety
    • Headache
    • Cerebral hemorrhage
    • Cardiac arrhythmia
    • Pulmonary edema
  8. What are the Therapeutic uses of Phenylephrine?
    • Nasal decongestant
    • Suppressor
    • Local Vasoconstrictor
    • Relief of paroxysmal (sudden) atrial tachycardia
  9. What are adverse effects of Phenylephrine?
    • Cardiac irregularities (large dose)
    • Rebound nasal congestion (chronic use)
  10. What are the Therapeutic uses of Ephedrine?
    • Treat bronchial asthma
    • Nasal decongestant
    • Suppressor for spine
  11. What are adverse effects of Ephedrine?
    • Hypertension, arrhythmias, angina, hyperglycemia
    • Insomnia
    • Caution with cardiovascular disease and hyperthyroidism
  12. What are adverse effects of α-blockers?
    • Orthostatic (postural hypotension)
    • Reflex Tachycardia
    • Nasal congestion
    • Impotence
  13. What are the therapeutic applications of β-blockers?
    • Hypertension
    • Cardiac Arrhythmias
    • Angina Pectoris
  14. What are the clinical uses of β-blockers?
    • Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Migraine (before onset use)
    • Stage Fright
    • Pheochromocytoma
  15. What are the adverse effects of β-blockers?
    • Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
    • Bradycardia
    • Rebound Cardiac Excitation
    • Bronchoconstriction
    • Inhibition of Glycogenolysis
    • Central Nervous System (CNS) side effects
  16. What are the contraindications for Parasympathetic Antagonists?
    • Closed Angle Glaucoma
    • Prostatic Hypertrophy (enlarged prostate)
    • Heart Disease
    • Obstructive Bowel Disease
  17. Amitriptyline

    What are these Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA) indicated for?
    • Major depressive episodes
    • Enuresis (cannot control urine)
    • Agoraphobia (fear of open spaces)
    • Panic Attacks
    • Obsessive compulsive neurosis
    • Chronic pain
    • Neuralgia
    • Migraine headaches
  18. Bupropion (Wellbutrin)
    2nd Generation Heterocyclic
  19. Venlafaxine (Effexor)
    3rd Generation Heterocyclic
  20. Citalopram (Clexa)
    Fluoxetine (Prozac)
    Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
    Paroxetine (Paxil)
    Sertraline (Zoloft)

    What are these Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) indicated for?
    • Depression
    • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
    • *Luvox is only for OCD
  21. Patients using these should not eat food containing high tyramine content (cheese, beer, chicken liver).
    This can also interfere with drug detoxification.
    Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI)
  22. d-Amphetamine (Dexedrine)
    Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
    Pemoline (Cylert)

    What are these Amphetamine-like drugs indicated for?
    • Narcolepsy (Brain cannot regulate waking/sleeping cycle)
    • Attention deficit disorder in children (ADD)
  23. Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
    Haloperidol (Haldol)

    How do Antipsychotic drug effect the extrapyramidal system of the brain?
    • Acute Dystonia
    • Parkinsonism
    • Akathisia
    • Tardive Dyskinesia

    • *The Extrapyramidal system controls involuntary reflex and coordination
    • **Haldol has dramatic/severe side effects to this system
  24. Levodopa
    Carbidopa (Lodosyn) plus Levodopa
    Amantadine (Symmetrel)
    Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
    Trihexyphenidyl (Artane)
    Benztropine (Cogentin)

    These drugs are indicated for what condition?
    Parkinson (not enough dopamine)
  25. Phenytoin

    These Generalized Tonic-Clonic (Grand Mal) are indicated for?
  26. Barbituarates
    Buspirone (Buspar)

    These General CNS Depressants are indicated for?
    • Anxiety
    • Insomnia
    • *Buspar is only for Anxiety
  27. What are indications for Barbituarates?
    • Epileptic Seizures
    • Produce general anesthesia (pain killer)
    • Anxiety
    • Neurotic states
  28. What are indications for Benzodiazepines?
    • Anxiety
    • Insomnia
    • Seizure Disorder
    • Muscle Spasm, panic attacks, withdrawal from alcohol
    • *Benzodiazepines are the drug of choice to treat anxiety
  29. What is the drug of choice to treat anxiety?
  30. Morphine
    Central Analgesics / Narcotic Analgesics / Pain Killers
  31. This drug is used for overdose of opioids.
    Naloxone (Narcan)
  32. What are the categories of Heart Failure drugs?
    • Cardiac Glycosides
    • Bipyridines
    • Beta agonists
    • Diuretics
    • Vasodilators
  33. Digoxin

    This Cardiac Glycoside is indicated for?
    • Heart Failure
    • Atrial Fibrillation
    • Atrial Flutter
  34. Amrione (Inocor)
    Milrione (Primacor)

    What category of heart failure drug do these belong to?
  35. Dopamine

    What category of heart failure drugs do these belong to?
    Beta agonists
  36. Thiazides / Hydrochlorothiazide (Diuril)
    Loop Diuretics / Furosemide (Lasix)
    Potassium-sparing agents / Spironolactone (Aldactone)

    What category of heart failure drugs do these belong to?
    • Diuretics
    • *Hydrochlorothiazides (HCTZ) can cause hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, excessive fluid loss
  37. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

    What category of heart failure drugs does this belong to?
  38. What are the five major categories of antihypertensive drugs?
    • Diuretics
    • Sympatholytics
    • Direct-acting vasodilators
    • Calcium channel blocks
    • ACE inhibitors
  39. What are indications for β-Adrenergic Blockers?
    Mild to Moderate Hypertension
  40. What are contraindications for β-Adrenergic Blockers?
    • Severe Diabetes
    • Bradycardia
    • Partial Heart Block
    • Heart Failure
    • Asthma
    • Emphysema
  41. Methyldopa is used to treat mild to moderate hypertension, but especially in what cases?
  42. Prazosin (Minipress)
    Terazosin (Hytrin)

    These α1-Andrenergic Blockers have what adverse effects?
    Orthostatic Hypotension
  43. Verapamil (Isopten)
    Diltiazem (Cardizem)
    Nefedipine (Procardia)
    Amlodipine (Norvasc)

    What category of hypertension drugs do these belong to?
    Calcium Channel Blockers
  44. Captopril (Capoten)
    Enalapril (Vasotec)
    Lisonopril (Prinivil)
    Benazepril (Lotensin)

    What are indications for using these ACE inhibitors?
    • Hypertension especially for diabetic neuropathy
    • Used with diuretics and digitalis for heart failure
    • Myocardial infarction to enhance heart perfusion
    • *Contraindicated for pregnancy esp. during 2nd and 3rd trimester, may cause death / injury of fetus
  45. What types of drugs are used to treat angina?
    • Nitroglycerin
    • β-blockers
    • Calcium channel blockers
  46. What are the side effects of Niacin?
    • Skin: itching, intense flushing (redness) of face, neck and ears
    • GI: gastric upset, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  47. Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
    Cerivastatin (Baycol)
    Fluvastatin (Lescol)
    Lovastatin (Mevacor)
    Pravastatin (Pravachol)
    Simvastatin (Zocor)

    These HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors are indicated for?
    • Decreasing: cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides
    • Increasing: HDL
  48. Heparin

    What types of drugs are these?
    • Anticoagulants (blood thinners)
    • *these act on veins
  49. Aspirin

    What type of drug is this?
    • Antithrombotic / Antiplatelet
    • *prevents clotting esp. on arteries
  50. Streptokinase

    What type of drug is this?
    Thrombolytic (breaks up existing clots)
  51. What are the categories of drugs used to treat rhinitis?
    • Nasal Decongestants
    • Antihistamines
    • Cromolyn Sodium
    • Intranasal Steriods
  52. What are the indications for using Antihistamines?
    • Allergic Rhinitis
    • Relieves Sneezing, Rhinorrhea, Nasal Itching
    • Does not decrease congestion
    • Cannot treat cold symptoms from infectious rhinitis
    • Should be used constantly during allergy season even if asymptomatic
  53. Codeine (opioid)
    Dextromethorphan (non opioid)

    What category of drugs are these?
    Antitussives (suppress cough)
  54. What type of drug is Guaifenesin?
    Expectorant (helps to cough out)
  55. What type of drug is Acetylcysteine (mucomyst)?
    Mucolytic (breaks down mucus making it easier to cough out)
  56. What are the categories of drugs used to treat asthma?
    • β2-Adrenergic agonists
    • Theophylline (Methylxanthine class - CNS stimulant)
    • Glucocorticoids (for severe asthma)
    • Cromolyn Sodium (only for prevention / protection of brochospasm in chronic asthma)
  57. Terbutaline

    What are the indications for these β2-Adrenergic agonists?
    Inhaled: relieve mild to moderate asthma attacks and provide protection / prevention against exercise-induced asthma
  58. What is Ipratroprium bromide (Atrovent) used for?
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Card Set
Pharmacology Midterm Review
CNS, PNS, Cardiovascular, Respiratory Drugs