NSCI 310 2nd Midterm

  1. Actions that lead to a future extinction. Acts in the past that are causing current extinction.
    Animals going extinct right now are caused by processes that were put in place in the early 1900's
    Extinction Debt
  2. We use 5.3 billion lbs of ______ per year. Most of which is _____and _____.
    • Pesticides
    • Chlorine
    • Bleach
  3. True or False
    As much as 90% of pesticides never reach their target organisms.
  4. ______ are designed to kill target organisms without killing other animals.
  5. Effects on non target species
    reduces the health of a biological community
  6. Farms- Producers
    Biological Community
  7. What are Farms?
  8. The Increasing concentration level of toxins in higher trophic levels.
  9. A change in gene frequency through time.
    • Pesticide resistance
    • Also known as Evolution
  10. When you eliminate pests that are the target and maybe some that are not the target, you're clearing away competition for other organsims
    Creation of new pests
  11. Pesticides are designed to be long lasting.
    Persistence and Mobility
  12. Selective absorption by cells (ex:water soluble, fat soluble)
  13. Refers to how a lot of toxins end up in areas where they were not even used (ex; Polar bears have pesticides in them)
    Grasshopper Effect
  14. Allergens, Neurotoxins, Mutagens, Teratogens, and Carcinogen.
  15. Shuts down nervous system
  16. Affects genetic codes, usually makes organisms infertil (Also creates super bugs)
  17. Affects fetal development, causes birth defects, does not alter DNA
  18. Invasive out of control cell growth
    Carcinogen (cancer)
  19. Chemicals that can cause an allergic effect, activate your immune system.
  20. A chemical that remains in a biological community long after it had been used. Increases in concentration by Biomagnification.
  21. Other organisms that we use.
    Usually come in groups.
    Takes diversity and complexity=Stability
    Biological Resources
  22. Health of a Biological Community.
    a # of different species
  23. Species richness and evenness and genetic diversity the species that has the most Richness, 2nd most, 3rd most, etc... is the evenness of the community
    Diversity of Species
  24. Species Richness= ________
  25. Relative abundance of species
    Species Evenness
  26. Variety of genes from members of the same species
    Genetic Diversity
  27. Makes it more likely to survive a disease or change that effects it.
    Genetic diversity of a single species
  28. A healthy Biological Community has
    • Richness
    • Evenness
    • Genetic Diversity
  29. If you replenish the ______, you don't necessarily replenish the _________.
    • Richness
    • Genetic Diversity
  30. Emphasizes reproductive isolation
    The Biological Species Concept (B.S.C.)
  31. The problem with BSC defenition
    It only works with living animals
  32. Things look sufficiently different, so they are classified as a different species.
    consistency is the key.
    Morphological Species Concept
  33. It is tough to tell if geographic variance of different species. Also, genetic tests may disagree.
    Problems with Morphological Species Concept
  34. Looking at the DNA, the genetic code
    Genetic Species.
  35. Branching Relationships
    Using characteristics to define species and branches as a chart to define species.
    More about the relationship than the Morphological Species Concept.
    Philogenetic Species Concept
  36. Number of species currently living on earth
    • Estimate is 5 million, +/- 3 million different species.
    • 1.5 million are named
  37. When a species disappears
    • Extinction
    • It is a normal part of the process.
  38. It is estimated that ____ percent of all living organisms are extinct.
  39. An event, Permian Extinction
    Extinction Debt, Habitat change
    Over-harvesting, Invasive Species
    Ways to cause Extinction
  40. Estimated that 76% of all species died out in this period
  41. An Event causes this
    Even if perfectly adapted, organsims can still go extinct.
    This has happened five times in Earth's history.
    Mass Extinction.
  42. 95% of all life died out.
    Unknown causes
    Permian Extinction
  43. Farming, Housing , Dams, an event are causes of what type of extinction event.
    Habitat change
  44. The Lake trout vs the cut throat trout. The lake trout are considered
    Invasive Species
  45. the advocacy of the reintroduction of descendants of Pleistocene megafauna, which involves reintroducing species to areas where they became extinct in recent history (hundreds of years ago or less)
    Pleistocene Rewilding
  46. Starting from President Carter, how many species did these Presidents place on the Endangered Species list
    • Carter-126
    • Reagan-255
    • Bush1-231
    • Clinton-521
    • Bush2-60
    • Obama-64
  47. Weather happens here
  48. Daily temp. and moisture conditions in a given area
  49. Long term weather patterns
  50. Weather happens here from earth to 18km up at the Equator. Only 8km at the poles.
  51. From the top of the Troposphere to about 50km above the surface of Earth.
    Very little air movement.
    contains the ozone layer
  52. Considered a greenhouse gas when it is in the Stratosphere.
  53. 50 to 80km from the Earth's surface
  54. What causes
    50% of solar energy striking Earth reaches the surface.
    25% is absorbed by the atmosphere.
    25% bounces back into space.
    Greenhouse Effect
  55. Is the Greenhouse Effect good or bad?
    Good, but only if it in balance.
  56. What type of air pollutants are there?
    • Primary Pollutants
    • Secondary Pollutants
  57. Pollutants that are released directly into the atmosphere
    Primary Air Pollutants
  58. Pollutants that are modified into hazardous forms by interactions with the air.
    Secondary Air Pollutants
  59. Sulfur Dioxide or SO2 is a
    Primary Pollutant
  60. When sulfur dioxide becomes mixed with more oxygen it becomes_________ and is now considered a ______________.
    • Sulfur Trioxide
    • secondary pollutant.
  61. When sulfur trioxide becomes mixed with water it becomes ______________.
    Sulfuric acid or H2 SO4
  62. Established by the Clean Air Act of 1970.
    Criteria Pollutants
  63. The 7 Criteria Pollutants are
    • Sulfur dioxide
    • carbon monocide
    • particulates
    • hydrocarbons
    • nitrogen oxides
    • photo chemical oxidents
    • lead
    • carbon dioxide is in the running but not yet considered.
  64. An estimated ___to ___ billion tons of ___ are released into the atmosphere every year by fossil fuel combustion.
    • 7 to 8
    • Carbon Dioxide
  65. 1 or 2 billion tons per year of _______ are released into the atmosphere by deforestation, cement manufacturing, etc...
    Carbon Dioxide
  66. Carbon Dioxide is absorbed at a rate of 3 billion ton per year by ________.
    terrestrial ecosystems
  67. Carbon dioxide is absorbed by the _______ at a rate of 2 billion tons per year.
  68. Describe the water cycle
    • Evaporation, condensation, and precipitation.
    • This is going to be asked as a true/false question.
    • read it carefully
  69. When mountains block precipitation from getting into an area.
    Rain Shadow
  70. Low precipitation area
  71. ________ is not distributed equally over the planet
  72. Of all the liquid H2O on earth, ____ is in the oceans and serine lakes and only ___ is fresh water
    • 97.6%
    • 2.4%
  73. Of all the fresh water on earth, ____ is in ice and snow. ____ is in ground water and ___ is fresh surface water.
    • 87.6%
    • 12%
    • 0.8%
  74. _____ of water use is domestic
  75. ___ of water use in the U.S. is done in toilet flushing
  76. ____ of water withdrawal in the U.S. is used in Agriculture.
  77. What are the 3 ways that we use water
    • Domestic use
    • Agricultural
    • Industrial Use
  78. The state of being free from illness or injury:

      1. A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, esp. one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a...

      1. A particular quality, habit, or disposition regarded as adversely affecting a person or group of people.

Card Set
NSCI 310 2nd Midterm
Flash cards for second midterm of NSCI 310 Spring 2013