Qtr 3 Function head and neck neurology exam 4

  1. What percent of adults report having at least one severe or disabling headache?
  2. What percent of migranes occur in females?
  3. What percent of cluster headaches occurs in males?
  4. What would a sudden onset of a severe headache, headache accompanied by impaired mental status, seizures, focal neurologic signs, new headache after 50 yrs/old indicate?
    Serious neurologic problem (e.g., brain tumor, brain abscess, hemorrhage, meningitis, hypertension
  5. What do pain receptors above the tentorium cerebelli refer pain too?
    Front half of head
  6. Where is pain below the tentorium cerebelli referred
    occipital region
  7. Where is headache pain in the patient with meningitis?
    Over entire head
  8. What is the average duration of a migraine?
    1 to 2 days
  9. What are the primary features of a migraine headache?
    • scintillating lights
    • transient visual loss
    • throbbing unilateral pain
    • photophobia
    • phonophobia
    • autonomic symptoms
  10. What mechanism of migraine involves vasoconstriction of occipital arteries and or vasodilation of extracranial arteries?
    Vascular reactivity
  11. what is the main precipitating factor for migraine headaches?
    Stress (62%)
  12. How does the drug propranolol help treat migraine symptoms?
    Beta-adrenergic blocker
  13. What does the drug verapamil treat migraine headaches?
    calcium channel blocker
  14. What neurotransmitter is secreted by the Raphe nucleus?
    5-HT (serotonin)
  15. What neurotransmitter is secreted by the locus ceruleus?
  16. Where is a lesion on a person who is unable to contract facial muscles on the left side of the face but raising eyebrows is intact?
    Right side UMNL to the facial nerve
  17. What is the Bell's phenomenon?
    Eyeball moves superior and lateral because the eyelid cannot close all the way
  18. What is the mechanism behind crocodile tears?
    Lesioin to proximal geniculate ganglion causes sprouting of nerves from salivatory nucleus that connects to lacrimal fibers
  19. What is the most common type of headache?
    Tension headache
  20. What are the two main medications for treating tension headaches?
    • Tricyclic antidepressants
    • Anti-inflammatory
  21. What type of headache typically refers pain behind the browbone and or cheekbones?
    Sinusitis headache
  22. Who is mainly affected by giant cell arteritis?
    Women 65 to 80
  23. What type of headache presents with an abrupt elevation in bp, tachycardia, palpitation, sweating tremor?
  24. What would likely  be found in a UA of a patient with pheochromocytoma?
    increased catecholamine and their metabolites (e.g., metanephrine, normetanephrine, vanillylmandelic acid)
  25. What is the normal volume the vetricles of the brain?
    150 ml
  26. How many ML of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus?
    500 ml/day
  27. How do the lateral ventricles communicate with the 3rd ventricle?
    Interventricular foramen of monroe
  28. What makes up the lateral wall of the anterior horn of lateral ventricle?
    Caudate Nucleus
  29. Where is the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle found?
    • Temporal (inferior) horn
    • and body
  30. What is the glomus and where is it found?
    Glomus is a large tuft of choroid plexus found in the trigone of the lateral ventricle
  31. Where are the choroid plexus found in the 3rd ventricle?
  32. How does the 4th ventricle pass CSF?
    • two lateral foramen of luschka
    • One median foramen of magendie
  33. What is a rare neurological disorder that impairs the body's autonomic functions (e.g., bp, hr, bladder, digestion)?
    Multiple system Atrophy (Shy-drager syndrome)
  34. What disease is autosomal dominant and causes atrophy of caudate nucleus and frontal/temporal gyri?
    huntingtion's disease
  35. What disease causes sever degeneration of choleinergic and GABA-ergic neurons which are located in the caudate nucleus and putamen?
    huntingtion's disease
  36. How many repeating CAG sequences must be present to suggest a person will develop huntington's disease?
  37. What is the probable mechanism of cell death in huntington's disease?
    Glutamate excitotoxicity
  38. what type of infection can cause sydenham's chorea?
    rheumatic fever
  39. What is the physiology of wilson's disease?
    • genetic disorder of copper metabolism
    • Necrotic lesions of liver from copper deposition
    • renal tube damage
    • lenticular degeneration
  40. What causes a kayser-fleischer ring?
    Wilson's disease causes copper deposition in the descemet membrane of the cornea
  41. Where are the majority of intracranial tumors in Adults and Children respectively?
    • Adults: supratentorial
    • Children: infratentorial
  42. Where are metastatic brain tumors frequently located?
    Junction of gray and white matter
  43. What segment of the population do gioblastoma multiforme, meningioma, and acoustic neuroma most commonly occur?
  44. What are the most common primary intracranial tumors in children?
    • cerebellar astrocytoma
    • medulloblastoma
  45. What ventricle is the most common site for ependymoma?
    fourth ventricle
  46. What age group is most commonly effected by ependymoma?
    child and adolescence
  47. What is the most common primary intracranial neoplasm?
  48. What is the second most common primary intracranial neoplasm?
  49. in what type of tumor are psammoma bodies found
  50. meningioma
  51. Where do meningioma cells originate?
    arachnoid cells
  52. What is the most common intracranial site for neurilemmoma (Schwannoma)?
    • eighth cranial nerve (acoustic neuroma)
    • Cerebellopontine angle
  53. What is the most common pituitary adenoma?
  54. What type of neurotransmitter is used by all preganglionic neurons?
  55. What blocks nicotinic receptors?
  56. What block muscarinic receptors?
  57. What is the postganglionic receptor for parasympathetic and sympathetic cholinergic neurotransmission?
  58. What is the postganglionic neurotransmitter for sympathetic innervation to all areas except secretory glands?
  59. What can be used to block alpha and beta adrenergic receptors respectively?
    • Alpha blocked by phenoxybenzamine
    • Beta blocked by propranolol
  60. What preganglionic sympathetic neurotransmitter is released to the adrenal medula?
  61. Where is the raphe nucleus located?
    • Pons
    • Midbrain
    • Medulla
  62. Where is the locus ceruleus located and what does it secrete?
    • bilaterally in midbrain and pons paraventricular area
    • Norepinephrine
  63. Describe Kluver-Bucy syndrome?
    bilateral removal of the amygdaloid nuclei results in tame behavior, oral fixation, sexually hyperactive
  64. Does a LMNL of CNVII result in contralateral or ipsilateral hemiparalysis?
  65. A lesion in what pathway would cause inability of ipsilateral eye to adduct past midline with nystagmus of abducting contralateral eye?
    Medial longitudinal fasciculus
  66. What is the most common dermatome area fro herpes zoster?
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Qtr 3 Function head and neck neurology exam 4
exam 4