How do non-vascular plants differ from vascular plants?
The way they transport water and nutrients.
What characteristic do club mosses and ferns share?
They are vascular plants.
What parts of a fern grow underground?
roots and stems
What does Photosynthesis in plants produce?
Sugar and Oxygen
What is a benefit of hydroponics?
It enables crops to grow in areas with poor soil.
Where does sphagnum moss grow?
The energy that powers photosynthesis comes from what?
The part of a moss that absorbs water and nutrients from the soil.
What are a fern's fronts?
A group of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism.
When Scientists alter an organism's genetic material to produce and organism with qualities that some people find useful, it is called.
Type of plant that do not have a complex system to transport water, nutrients and food through their bodies.
What two things does a fern's vascular tissue do?
1. Transports food and water
2. supports the fern's body
What are the immature leaves on a fern called?
A hornwort is an example of what kind of plant?
Thin, rootlike structures that anchor mosses to the ground.
A waxy, waterproof layer that covers the leaves of most plants.
The practice of growing plants in solutions of nutrients instead of soil
If you came across a tall plant in the forest, would you think it's a vascular or nonvascular plant?
Vascular plant, because non-vascular plants have to stay close to the ground for water and nutrients.
List five things that plants must do in order to live on land.
1. Obtain water and materials from their surroundings.
2. Retain water.
3. Transport materials through the plant.
4. Support the body.
5. Reproduce successfully.
Name 3 ways that scientists are helping farmers today.
1. Precision farming
3. Genetic Engineering
List three challenges that farmers are facing today.
1. size and structure
3. crop yields
A waxy waterproof layer that covers the leaves of most plants.
a fertilized egg
Low-growing plants that lack vascular tissues.
The most diverse group of non-vascular plants
When a sperm cell unites with an egg cell.
A blackish-brown material consisting of compressed layers of dead sphagnum moss that grows in bogs.
An organism with cells that contain nuclei and other cell structures.
A wetland where sphagnum moss grows on top of acidic water.
Thin root-like structures that anchor moss and absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
A group of non-vascular plants that have curved structures that look like horns.
A group of non-vascular plants that are shaped like a human liver.
A farming which involves knowing just how much water and fertilizer different fields require.
Plants that have vascular tissues and tend to grow tall.
A tiny cell that is able to grow into a new organism.
Animals without backbones
If parts of their bodies are cut off, some kinds of worms can regrow the lost body parts in a process called______________.
Animals that eat both plants and other animals.
Different kinds of tissue combine to form a(n) ______________ that performs a specific function.
An animal that has what kind of symmetry if there is only one line that divides its body into halves that are mirror images?
Animals that hunt and kill other animals.
Jellyfishes and sea anemones are examples of animals with what kind of symmetry?
An animal that has a backbone.
An animal that has no head or tail is an animal with what kind of symmetry?
The process by which a new organism forms from the joining of an egg and sperm cell.
Organisms that grow on or in other organisms.
Name three major kinds of worm.
3. segmented worms
If one line can be drawn to divide the animal into halves that are mirror images of each other, then that animal has what type of symmetry?
What is the term for an animal that hunts and kills other animals for food?
What does the energy for an animal's body activities come from?
What is the term for a group of tissues that work together to perform a specific, complex job?
What type of symmetry to cnidarians have?
If an animal's body is in the shape of a circle, what type of symmetry does it have?
What are 5 things that all worms have in common?
1. bilateral symmetry
3. long narrow body with no legs
4. tissues, organs and organ systems
5. head and tail ends
What are 4 characteristics that all animals with radial symmetry share?
1. all live in water
2. they do not move fast
3. water brings food to them
4. they learn their environment through touch and taste
What are four characteristics of an animal with bi-lateral symmetry?
1. have a front end that goes first
2. move quickly
3. they have sense organs in their front ends
4. Each half of body has one sense organ
a characteristic that helps an organism survive in it's environment or reproduce.
A group of different tissues that work together to perform a specific job that is more complex than the functions of the tissue by itself.
A balanced arrangement
animals with no backbones
animals that have many lines of symmetry that all go through a central point.
animals that eat only plants
animals with stinging cells
openings in the body of a sponge
the ability to regrow body parts
the simplest organism with a brain
animals that lack tissue and organs and have a bag body
animals that eat only other animals
animals that predators capture
a group of similar cells that performs a specific function.
carnivores that hunt and kill other animals
animals that have symmetry that divides their bodies into two halves that are mirrored images
animals that eat both plants and other animals
animals that have backbones
Where do crustaceans live?
What does a mollusk's radula enables it do?
scrape food from a surface
How does camouflage benefit insects?
helps them avoid predators
What do the pheromones from one species of moth usually attract?
only moths of the same species
How to Cephalopods move?
by jet propulsion
Light that is produced in bioluminescence is generated by what?
How many sections do the bodies of all spiders have?
snails and slugs belong to which group of mollusks?
When a sea-star eats a clam, where does digestion begin?
outside the sea star's body
What is the thin layer of tissued called that overs the internal organs of mollusks?
What are the appendages that arthropods have that help them sense their environment called?
What is the section of the body called that an insect's wings and legs are attached to?
What is the arthropod that has many segments with two legs on each segment called?
What is the material that Arthropod's skeletons are made of called?
Spiders, mites and ticks belong to what group of arthropods?
Introducing ladybug beetles to fields were aphids are eating crops is an example of what?
What group of mollusks have the most complex nervous system?
Butterflies and ants develop from egg to adult in the type of metamorphosis known as ___________________.
Insects usually have two large eyes that contain many lenses. What are these eyes called?
An arthropods body that is divided into linked sections has what type of body?
Describe 2 ways in which insects are harmful to humans.
They can sting people
They can destroy crops
Describe 2 ways insects are helpful to humans.
Bees make honey
Silkworms make silk.
Sea-stars feed on oysters. To protect their oysters, some farmers cut Sea-stars into pieces and threw them back into the water. But the sea-stars did not die, instead, they multiplied. Why?
Name the body sections of insects and tell which organs and appendages are found on or in each section.
Head - has antennae
Thorax - has legs and wings
Abdomen- internal organs
invertebrates with soft unsegmented bodies that are often protected by hard shells.
arachnid's hind section which contains the reproductive organs and part of it's digestive tract.
an appendage on the head that contains sense organs.
mollusks with 1 shells held together by a hinge of strong muscles
flexible ribbon of tiny teeth
outer skeleton which protects the animal and keeps in moisture
process of shedding an outgrown exoskeleton
mollusks that eat with radula and have one broad foot for moving.
organs that remove waste produced by an animal's cell
gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods are what?
major group of mollusks
mollusks that eat with tentacles and move by jet propulsion
invertebrates that have external skeletons, a segmented body and appendages
jointed attachments such as wings, mouthparts and legs
crustaceans, arachnids, centipedes, millipedes, and insects
major group of arthropods
tough, flexible materials that arthropods exoskeletons are made of
arthropod with 2 body sections, 8 legs and no antennae
arthropod with 2 or 3 body sections, usually 3 pair of appendages, 2 pair of antennae, ad 5 or more pairs of legs.
How do most adult amphibians obtain oxygen?
lungs and thin moist skin
Which organs help a reptile keep water in its body?
skin and kidneys
What is one way in which a reptile's egg is adapted to survive on land?
The egg has membranes that help keep the embryo moist
The toe pads of tree frogs are an adaptation that help the frog do what?
move from twig to twig
Amphibians are especially sensitive to changes in the environment because....
their skin is very thin.
One difference between frogs and toads is....
toads have dry bumpy skin
How is a reptile egg different from an amphibian egg?
It has a soft leathery shell
Of the kinds of reptiles alive today, what are the largest?
alligators and crocodiles
How many chambers are there in a typical adult amphibian's heart?
One major difference between lizards and snakes is that ....
Lizards have legs.
How can an adult reptile survive on dry land?
It's kidneys produce concentrated urine
What environments are amphibians adapted to?
damp, moist environments
How do lungless salamanders breath on dry land?
They exchange gases through their skin.
Amphibians that keep their tails as adults....
What is the process called when a tadpole loses it's gills and develops lungs?
A reptile's shell has tiny holes that allow the embryo to get rid of what waste?
Strong skeletons and muscular limbs adapt amphibians for movement where?
Reptile's kidneys excrete wastes in a watery fluid called what?
Explain the function of each of the three membranes of the eggs of reptiles.
They hold the liquid in that the embryo lives in and keeps it from being crushed.
It holds the yolk and gives the embryo food.
It gets rid of the waste that it produces.
Identify two ways in which snakes and lizards are alike.
They have skin overlapping their scales.
They shed their skin.
Identify two ways in which snakes and lizards are different.
Lizards have legs and snakes don't.
Lizards have eyelids and snakes dont.
A connective tissue that is softer than bone, but flexible and strong.
an animal whose body controls and regulates it's temperature by controlling the internal heat it produces.
have no scales; skeletons are made of cartilage, do not have pairs of fins (ex. hagfish and lampreys)
a practice which reduces the demand for fish caught in rivers and oceans.
a vertebrate that lives in the water and has fins.
phylum whose members have a notochord, a nerve cord, and slits in their throat area at some point in their lives.
a flexible rod that supports the animal's back
slits in the throat area
the force that water exerts upward on any underwater object
the type of rock where most fossils occur most frequently.
an animal whose body does not produce much internal heat.
most familiar kinds of fish; they have skeletons made of hard bone
the bones that make up the backbone of an animal.
hardened remains or other evidence of a living thing that existed a long time in the past.
provides a large surface to push against the water
skeletons of these fishes are made of cartilage and they have jaws and pairs of fins (ex: sharks, rays, and skates)
an internal gas-filled sac that helps the fish stabilize it's body at different depths.
this has drastically reduced the populations of some fish species.
What type of behaviors are not done right the first time?
A cat hisses when it sees a dog. This hissing is an example of __________________.
Insight learning is most common in ________________.
What type of learning is the experiment with Pavlov's dog?
What is threatening behavior called?
The kind of group in which ants and bees live in is called what?
What are daily animal behavior cycles that occur in regular, predictable patterns called?
What sense do animals have and use that humans do not?
What term is defined as all the actions an animal performs?
A traveler studies a map and reads directions to learn how to get to a distant city. The traveler's behavior is an example of what?
In which group does imprinting most often occur?
Birds and mammals
How does imprinting help an adult animal?
it helps an adult animal find a mate
Female fur seals spend the winter in the ocean off the coast of California. Then, in the spring, they swim thousands of miles northward to islands off the coast of Alaska. What is this behavior an example of?
What is an animal showing if it attacks another animal that comes into it's territory?
What ensures that male and females of the same species prepare for mating?
Animals will mark their ________________ and defend it.
What type of learning involves both instinct and learned behaviors?
All primates can learn with what type of learning?
What is all animal behavior?
A response to a stimulus.
What is the process called that leads to changes in behavior based on practice or experience?
The larger an animals brain, the ____________ it can learn.
A bird building a nest for the first time is an example of what type of learning?
Playing video games without looking at the directions is an example of what type of learning?
The electronic game "20 Questions" is an example of what type of learning?
riding a bike is an example of what type of learning?
Trial and Error learning
A spider spinning a web is an example of what type of learning?
Teaching a dog to sit by giving treats is an example of what type of learning?
Using math formulas is an example of what type of learning?
A bird following a human instead of another bird is an example of what type of learning?
A lion learning to hunt is an example of what type of learning?
Trial and error learning
Computer card games are examples of what type of learning?
Shooting baskets is an example of what type of learning?
Trial and Error learning
What five things do animals compete with one another for?
What are three ways that animals learn new behaviors?
A signal that causes an organism to react in some way.
The Organism's reaction to a stimulus.
Name two reasons that it is helpful to live in groups.
Safety in numbers
Easier to hunt
Name 3 ways that animals communicate.
Chemical Reaction / fireflies use light to signal
Body Movement / Cows stomping feet
Sounds / Cat hissing at dog
Name four reasons that animals communicate.
help or warning
Do all stimuli come from an organisms external environment?
No, some stimuli can come from inside the animal. HUNGER
Most fish abandon their eggs after laying them. As soon as the young fish hatch, they can feed themselves and escape from predators. Why is it important that these behaviors be instinctive rather than learned?
So the young fish can fend for themselves.
Birds are the only animals that have what?
What is the function of a placenta?
To pass materials between the mother and the embryo.
Where does a placental mammal develop before it's body system can function independently?
Inside the mother's body.
Which characteristic is common to all mammals?
Their heart has four chambers.
Where does evidence indicate that birdsare descended from?
What characteristic is used to classify a mammal species as a monotreme, marsupial, or placental?
The way in which its young develop.
A bird's nearly hollow bones help it to do what?
What are bats able to do that other mammals cannot?
Which mammal has the longest gestation period?
Large mammals such as elephants
Which type of mammals lay eggs?
What is a function of canine teeth in most mammals?
To stab and tear into food.
Feathers keep a bird warm by doing what?
Trapping air next to the bird's body.
What is a mammal's gestation period?
The length of time between fertilization and birth.
How many types of teeth are found in mammals?
4 - molars, pre-molars, k-9, incisors
What is the name of the upward force that enables birds to fly?
Where do many birds store food that they are not ready to digest yet.
Fur is an adaptation that allows mammals to do what?
Survive in cold climates.
What are the toes of a perching bird are adapted to do what?
help the birds lock onto branches.
Give an example of a monotreme.
Some birds swallow a small stone. What does this help the birds do?
Describe the air pressure as a bird's wings move forward through the air.
There is less pressure above the wing than beneath it.
Where are mammals probably descended from?
What is the insulated material below a mammals skin called?
What are mammals that lay eggs called?
Humans, monkeys and apes belong to a placental group called what?
What type of flying requires the most energy?
What type of flying involving birds riding on a current of warm air?
What group of animals have the fewest number of species?
What do a pregnant female monotremes and marsupials lack?
What do birds have that connect to lungs and increase the amount of oxygen the bird can take in?
What is the large muscle called that is located at the bottom of the chest and helps the mammals to breathe?
What do mammary glands produce?
What type of flight involves a bird coasting downward through the air?
The speed at which an ostrich can do what helps protect it from predators?
What type of feathers give shape to a bird's body?
If an animal does not have four legs, can it be a mammal? Explain
Yes, humans have 2 legs and dolphins and whales have no legs. They are all mammals.
Teeth that grind and shred food into tiny bits.
Molars and premolars
Mammals whose young develop inside their bodies.
What connects the young to the mother?
Mammals with a pouch
a material that does not conduct heat well.
endothermic vertebrate with skin covered with fur or hair.
Endothermic vertebrate with feathers.
flat edged teeth that are used to bite off food and cut it into parts
feathers used to trap heat
A large dome-shaped muscle that helps mammals breathe in and out.
A dark, sticky substance that forms when tobacco burns.
When the substance inside tobacco is burned, a colorless, odorless gas is emitted. What is it?
A drug that produces an addiction or physical dependence.
Why do smokers cough frequently?
because their cilia cannot sweep away mucus.
List three respiratory problems that result from long-term smoking.
A serious disease that destroys lung tissue and causes difficulty breathing.
What causes emphysema?
People don't get enough oxygen and can't adequately eliminate CO2.
How do chemicals in tobacco smoke affect blood vessels
Chemical get into the blood and are absorbed by the blood vessels
What is passive smoking?
People involuntarily inhale the smoke from other people's cigarettes, cigars or pipes.
True or false
Passive smoking causes respiratory problems and increases the risk of heart disease and lung cancer in non-smokers.
When do most smokers begin smoking?
In their teens
List two reasons that people are tempted to start smoking.
Any chemical that causes changes in a person's body or behavior is a__________________.
Legal drugs that help the body fight disease and injury.
The deliberate misuse of drugs for purposes other than medical ones.
The state in which a drug user needs larger and larger amounts of drugs to produce the same effect on the body.
The period of adjustment that occurs when a person stops taking drugs.
What legal and social effects do drug abusers have?
A person who is caught selling an illegal drug may have o pay a fine or go do jail.
Produces mood-altering effects when breathed in.
Synthetic chemical similar to hormones used by athletes to improve performance.
Slows down the activity of the central nervous system.
Can make people see or hear things that do not exist.
Speeds up body processes
Which drugs do NOT cause emotional dependence?
What type of drug is alcohol?
What is the most commonly abused drug in people age 12-17?
Where is alcohol quickly absorbed?
In the digestive system
If alcohol is drunk with a meal, does it take longer for the alcohol to get into the blood?
What effect can alcohol have on the nervous system?
Vision can become blurred and speech unclear.
What effects can alcohol have on the cardiovascular system?
The heart rate and blood pressure decreases
What effects can alcohol have on the excretory system?
Kidneys produce more urine.
How does the abuse of alcohol affect the body?
It affects the nervous system, cardiovascular system, excretory system, digestive system liver and skin.
A disease in which a person is both physically addicted to and emotionally dependent on alcohol.
What is the best way to avoid depending on drugs and alcohol?
What does the endocrine system control?
Many of the bodies daily activities as well as long-term changes, such as development
The endocrine system is made up of what?
Organs that produce chemicals.
What do endocrine glands release their chemical though?
What is the chemical product of an endocrine gland?
How do hormones affect the body?
They turn on, turn off, speed up or slow down activities.
Controls the changes that take place in the body of teenage boys.
Trigger the body to respond to emergencies.
Helps the immune system fight infection
Controls the release of energy from food molecules during respiration
Controls the changes that take place in the body of a teenage girl.
Links the nervous system and the endocrine system. Controls the pituitary system, which in turn, regulates other endocrine glands.
How does negative feedback work to control the amount of hormone in the blood?
It sends signals to stop the releases of hormones.
The male sex cell
A fertilized egg
The joining of a sperm and egg
Carries the information that controls inherited characteristics.
The female sex cell
The process by which living things produce new individuals of the same type.
What is the male reproductive system specialized to produce?
Sperm, hormone testosterone
Where is male sperm produced?
What does testosterone control?
Controls the development of physical characteristics in men.
Where are the testes located?
What does semen provide to sperm?
Environment where sperm can swim.
nutrients that the moving sperm use as a source of energy.
What is the role of the female reproductive system?
it is to produce eggs,and if an egg is fertilized, to nourish a developing baby until birth.
What do ovaries produce?
egg cell and hormones
What does estrogen control?
It triggers the development of some adult female characteristics.
what is the path of an egg?
1. Ovaries produce the egg.
2. The egg moves through the oviduct where it can be fertilized.
3. The egg enters the uterus where it stays to develop if it's fertilized.
4. An unfertilized egg begins to break down and enter vagina.
The muscular passageway leading to the outside of the female body. Also called the birth canal.
The monthly cycle of changes that occurs in female reproductive system.