smallest part of written language
- initial consonant sound of a syllable
- ex: sw- in the onset of swim
- part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it
- ex: -im is the rime of swim
recognize the same sounds in different words
- combining phonemes to create a word
- students can read and write word
recognizing the word that remains when a phoneme is deleted/removed
teaching phonemic awareness, particularly how to segment words into phonemes, helps children learn...
how to spell
what is the heart of phonemic instruction?
relating sounds to letters
systematic and explicit phonics instruction is most effective when...(2)
- introduced early
- taught to children from various social and economic levels
systematic and explicit phonics significantly improves...(2)
- k&1st word recognition and spelling
- children's reading comprehension
whole-word or meaning-based reading programs pay limited attention to...(2)
- letter-sound relationships
- how to blend letters to pronounce words
fluency is the bridge between ...
word recognition and comprehension
what substantially improves reading fluency, word recognition, speed, and accuracy?
- repeated oral reading
- w/guidance and feedback
what two exercise methods help improve reading fluency?
- students should hear models of fluent reading
- students should read orally from a text they can easily master
vocabulary is important for (3) things
- communicating effectively
- learning how to read
- reading comprehension
how do children learn the meanings of most words?
- through everyday experiences by reading or hearing language
three ways that children learn word meanings indirectly:
- children engage in oral language daily
- children listen to adults read to them
- children read extensively on their own
before reading, what helps students vocabulary and reading comprehension?
teaching them new specific words so they understand them when they reach them in the new text
word-learning strategies (3)
- knowing how to use dictionaries, thesauruses, and other reference aids
- knowing how to use info about word parts to figure out the word's meaning (affixes, root word, base word, etc.)
- how to use context clues to determine word meaning
Good readers are: (2)
- purposeful - have a purpose for reading..whether its to learn a new skill or for entertainment or for a course req.
- active - think actively using their experiences and knowledge to help them make sense of the text
"thinking about thinking" or thinking about and having control over their reading is categorized as...
knowing when you understand what you read and what you did not understand is categorized as...
using what type of comprehension strategy do students have greater appreciation, understanding, and memory for stories...?
recognizing story structure
A synthesis of the important ideas in a text is called...
comprehension strategies are direct and typically include...(4)
- direct explanation
- guided practice
cooperative learning involves students...
working together as partners or in small groups on clearly defined tasks helping each other learn and comprehend
the following are what kind of strategies:
ask questions about the text
summarize parts of text
clarify words and sentences not understood
predict what might occur next in the text
comprehension strategies used in reciprocal teaching
- thought and language are not coordinated during the sensorimotor and preoperational stages
- birth to age 6..thought and language develop independently
- before age 6 or 7 language is primarily functional
piaget is known for his four developmental stages:
- (1) sensorimotor
- (2) preoperational
- (3) concrete operational
- (4) formal operational
what are the building blocks of language?
what is the study of logical or grammatical structure of sentences?
what is the study of the meaning of language?
what is the study of how diff contexts and social setting impact the way language is used?
what is the study of longer spoken and written discourses such as verbal exchanges or written texts?
norm-referenced tests are designed to ...
- compare students
- ex: Intelligence tests (IQ)
criterion-referenced tests are designed to...
- determine the degree to which an objective has been reached
- ex: teacher-made tests
SES stands for...
what describes the subject or tells what that subject is doing?
what the subject is doing is called?
every predicate has a _____?
a clause contains a ____ and a _____
subject and verb
what frequently begins with prepositions?
what's another name for a dependent clause?
what begins with a relative pronoun?
of which, that, which, who, whoever, whose
are all examples of what part of speech?
when do you use the objective form? (me, us, him, her, etc)
- when the pronoun is the object of a verb or preposition
- ex: she wanted them to pass
- ex: Cathy helps him and me.
adverbs modify what?
- verbs, adj, and adverbs
- ex: Ryan quickly sought a solution
a comma splice consists of two...
independent cause joined by just a comma
good dictions conveys a ...
thought clearly without unnecessary words
when two or more ideas are connected, as a _____ structure
Who was among the first writers to popularize the view that children were not just small adults?
children's literature didn't exist until...
children's lit originally conveyed what?
a religious or moral message
a very long narrative poem
- related to an epic
- shorter than an epic
- presents profound feelings or ideas
lyric poems were called ______ when sung by French troubadours
depicts characters in a plot
when did the modern novel develop? what were the strong popular themes?
- historical and social themes
a literary device in which characters or events in a literary, visual, or musical art form represent or symbolize ideas and concepts...
american novels in the early 1900s focused on...
give an example...
- social ills
- ex: The Grapes of Wrath
repetition of an initial consonant
human body or human qualities given to nonhuman things is what literary term?
the secondary meanings that a word represents
actual meaning of a word
when an inoffensive term is substituted for one that is lass offensive...
when a drastic overstatement or understatement is used...
arguing a person to discredit their position, rather than arguing against the position itself
an argument that appeals to the emotions of the person
assuming that an argument is true without providing truth
begging the question
a conclusion that doesn't logically follow from the facts
falsely stating that one event following another is cause by the first event (false cause and effect)
post hoc, ergo propter hoc
an irrelevant point, diverting attention from the position being discussed
what typically has a plot, a setting, characters, and a narrator to tell the story and often tries to make some point that goes beyond the story itself?