Soc Psych Final

  1. Need for affiliation
    The desire to establish and maintain many rewarding interpersonal relationships
  2. When do we seek interaction?
    Times of stress, fearful, misery loves those also miserable
  3. Shyness
    Inborn personality trait, learned reaction to failed interactions with others
  4. Loneliness
    • Consequence of not having interactions
    • A feeling of deprivation about existing social relations
  5. Lonely people
    • 18-30 are loneliest
    • Higher risk of physical and mental problems
    • More likely to use drugs and alcohol
  6. We are attracted to...
    others with whom a relationship is directly or indirectly rewarding
  7. Evolutionary perspective
    All humans exhibit patterns of attraction and mate selection that favor the conception, birth, and survival of their offspring
  8. Necessary factors in attraction
    • Proximity effect
    • Mere exposure effect
  9. What attracts men and women to the opposite sex?
    • Men like: hourglass figures, young, physically attractive, faithful
    • Women like: v-shaped bodies, ambition, intelligence, stability
  10. What makes a person physically attractive?
    Symmetry, averaged faces
  11. What-is-beautiful-is-good-stereotype
    The belief that physically attractive individuals also possess desirable personality characteristics
  12. Cost of beauty
    Pressure to maintain one's appearance
  13. Physical attractiveness stereotype
    • More friends, better social skills, more active sex life
    • Not related to intelligence, personality, self-esteem
  14. Four types of similarity
    • Demographic
    • Attitude
    • Attractiveness
    • Subjective Experience
  15. Matching hypothesis
    People are attracted to others who are similar in physical attractiveness
  16. Reciprocity
    Mutual exchange between what one gives and what one receives
  17. Hard-to-get-effect
    We prefer people who are selective in social choices over those who are more readily available
  18. Snyder, Tanke, and Berscheid
    • Male participants spoke to women over the phone they prejudged as attractive or not.
    • Women who were thought to be attractive were rated more confident, friendly, liking of their partner
  19. Women must be selective because
    they are biologically limited in the number of children they can bear and raise in a lifetime whereas men can impregnate an unlimited amount of women
  20. Intimate relationships have three components
    • Feelings of love, attachment, and affection
    • Interdependence
    • Fulfillment of psychological needs
  21. Social exchange theory
    People are motivated to maximize benefits and minimize costs in the relationship with others
  22. Equity theory
    People are most satisfied with a relationship when the ratio between benefits and contributions is similar
  23. Exchange relationship
    • Participants expect and desire strict reciprocity in their interaction
    • Strangers, casual relationships
  24. Communal relationship
    • Participants expect and desire mutual responsiveness but do not keep track because it evens out over time
    • Close friends, intimate partner, family
  25. Attachment style
    The way a person typically interacts with significant others
  26. Secure attachment style
    Easy to get close to, comfortable depending, do not worry about being abandoned
  27. Avoidant attachment style
    Somewhat uncomfortable about getting close, difficult to trust others completely, nervous, others want me to be more intimate than I am comfortable with
  28. Anxious attachment style
    I want others to be closer, worry that partner does not love me, I want to merge completely but they get scared
  29. Consummate love
    • Intimacy: emotional component; feeling of closeness
    • Passion: motivational component; sex, attraction
    • Commitment: cognitive component; decision making, long term
  30. Intimacy
    Liking alone
  31. Romantic love
    Intimacy and passion
  32. Infatuation
    Passion alone
  33. Fatuous love
    Passion and commitment
  34. Empty love
    Commitment alone
  35. Companionate love
    Intimacy and commitment
  36. Liking
    Platonic friend
  37. Loving
    feeling for romantic partner
  38. Passionate love
    Romantic love characterized by high arousal intense attraction and fear of rejection
  39. Companionate love
    A secure, trusting, stable partnership
  40. Excitation transfer
    Misattribute physiological arousal to passionate love
  41. What causes conflict?
    Sex, money, family
  42. Negative-affect reciprocity
    Tit for tat exchange of negative expressions
  43. Aggression
    Behavior intended to harm another individual
  44. Emotional aggression
    Inflicting harm for its own sake; revenge, impulsive
  45. Instrumental aggression
    • Inflicting harm in other to obtain something of value
    • Can include self-defense
  46. Instinct theory
    We aggress against others in order to survive
  47. Evolutionary theory
    We aggress others to ensure procreation
  48. Behavior genetics
    Tendency to be aggressive is passed down from our parents
  49. The role of testosterone
    Testosterone and aggression are closely related
  50. Frustration-aggression hypothesis
    Impeding one's progress will elicit motives to aggress
  51. Displacement
    Substitute target for aggressive drive
  52. Traits associated with aggression
    • Emotional susceptibility
    • Narcissism
    • Type-A goal driven
    • Impulsivity
  53. Social learning theory
    Behavior is learned through the observation of others as well as through the direct experience of rewards and punishments
  54. Desensitization
    Exposure to violence through the media makes real violence and aggression less shocking and less physiologically arousing
  55. Cultivation
    The mass media shows the world as a violence place making people more on edge and more likely to aggress
  56. Factors associated with increased spousal abuse
    • Personal characteristics
    • Socioeconomic status
    • Stress
    • Growing up in a violent home
  57. Prosocial behaviors
    Actions intended to benefit other people
  58. Reciprocal altruism
    Increases likelihood that you will be helped
  59. Empathy altruism
    The proposition that empathic concern for someone in need produces an altruistic motive for helping
  60. Altruistic
    • Motivated by the desire to increase another's welfare
    • Help is given regardless of ease of escape
  61. Egoistic
    • Motivated by the desire to increase one's own welfare
    • Helping is decreased as escape from situation is easy
  62. Negative state relief model
    Help others to counteract own sadness
  63. Motivation to help
    • Values
    • Understanding (knowledge)
    • Personal development
    • Community concern
    • Esteem enhancement
  64. Bystander effect
    The presence of others inhibits helping
  65. Stimulus overload
    Those from big cities learn to drown out people lying in streets or hearing screams
  66. 5 Steps to helping
    • Noticing
    • Interpreting
    • Taking responsibility
    • Deciding how to help
    • Providing help
  67. Pluralistic ignorance
    • State in which people mistakenly belief that their own thoughts are different from others when they are the same
    • People look at each other to dictate actions
  68. Diffusion of responsibility
    Belief that others will help or should take responsibility for providing assistance to another person
  69. Audience inhibition
    Reluctance to help for fear or making a bad impression on observers
  70. Factors that correlate with helping
    • Economic well-being
    • Notion of simpatico: concern or well-being of others
  71. Good mood effect
    • People are more likely to help others if they are in a good mood
    • Maintain good mood, positive thoughts, positive expectation
  72. Social norm
    General rule of conduct reflecting standards of social approval and disapproval
  73. Whom do we help?
    • Attractive people
    • Those in bad situations they did not put themselves in
    • People similar to us
    • Family and friends
    • Friendly individuals
  74. Threat to self-esteem model
    Help is self-threatening when recipient feels inferior and overly dependent
Card Set
Soc Psych Final
Soc Psych Final