What is external respiration?
Process of gas exchange in lungs.
What is Cellular Respiration?
Use of o2 in cellular metabolism and production of Co2 as gaseous waste.
What is sinusitis?
- Inflammation of the sinuses blocking pathway; due to bacterial infection.
- Sinusitis is also one of the most common mediacl problems that affects approximately 30% of the population.
What is Bronchodilation?
- An increase in the diameter of the bronchi.
- Can be stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system
What is Bronchoconstriction?
- A decrease in the diameter of the bronchi.
- Parasympathetic activity
What is the Alveoli?
Microscopic air sacs of the lungs, each is covered with a blood capillary.
What is pulmonary ventilation?
What is Apnea?
Short absence of breathing
What is COPD?
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
What kind of drug is Acetylcysteine? And what does it do?
- It is a Mucolytic Drug
- Reduces the thickness and stickiness of purulent and nonpurulent secretions. Indicated as adjunct treatment of thick or abnormal mucus in bronchopulmonary diseases.
What is a cause of sinusitis?
When dealing with sinusitis, what is bad about built up mucus?
It can provide an excellent growth medium for bacterial, fungal, or viral growth
What is the treatment for sinusitis?
- Trimethorprim & Sulfamethoxazole
- For group A streptococcal infections & patients allergic to PCN
What is Asthma?
A chronic lung disorder that can be very life threatening. Characterized by the swelling of the bronchial tissue restricting the air passages.
What are some of the triggers of asthma?
Allergies are the most common, exercise, stress and or anxiety.
What are the different types of asthma?
- Mild to moderate
- Second Wave - this type occurs even though the asthma attack has stopped. Can last for days or even weeks.
What are the complications of asthma?
Untreated or uncontrolled asthma can lead to serious conditions such as congestive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and damaged lung tissue.
Explain avoidance of known allergenic triggers.
Can result in an improvement in symptoms, a reduction of medications, and a decrease in bronchial hyperreactivity.
What kind of agonists is a bronchodilator?
B₂ Agonists are the most effective bronchodilators available
Themphylline is what kind of drug and how is it effective?
- It is a methylxanthine
- Only when taken orally or parenterally, NOT as an aerosol.
What is a major side effect of Theophylline?
What kind of antagonist is zileuton?
What are the side effects of zileuton?
Flu like symptoms, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, upper right quadrant pain and jaundice
What kind of drug in cromolyn sodium?
Prophylactic asthmatic drug
What is cromolyn sodium indicated for?
Prophylaxis of chronic mild to moderate asthma and is the second drug of choice for the prevention of exercise induced asthma.
What is the MOA of Corticosteroids?
Mechanism of action of glucocorticoids in asthma may include; inhibiting the inflammatory response at all levels.
What are the 3 chronic lung diseases?
Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and COPD
What are the three types of influenza and explain the difference?
- Type A - Usually responsible for the large widespread outbreaks that occur
- Type B - Not as widespread, comes from a stable virus
- Type C - mild illness, similar to common cold
What are the 2 antivirals for influenza?
- Amantadine - appears to block uncoating of the influenza A virus and release of the viral nucleic acid into host respiratory cells.
- Oseltamivir - Treatment with oseltamivir should be started within 2 days of the beginning of flud symptoms to be evective
What is Pneumonia also known as?
- Nosocomial pneumonia
- Walking pneumonia
- Double pneumonia
What is Pneumonia?
Inflammation of the lungs caused by a virus, bacteria or other organism
What are the bacterial causes of pneumonia?
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Hemophilus influenzae - the most common gram-negative bacteria and usually acquired in hospital setting.
What are the viral causes of pneumonia?
- Influenza and RSV - most common
- Herpes simples virus 1 & 2
- Herpes Varicella-zoster
What type of pneumonia is Mycoplasma pneumonia?
It is atypical pneumonia and is the most commonly seen non-bacterial infection
Name some causes of pneumonia?
- Aspiration - Caused by the inhalation of oral bacteria or vomitus into the lungs
- Opportunistic - Pneumocystic carinii (PCP), Those at risk include HIV/AIDS.
What are the risk factors for Pneumonia?
- Those in intensive care, confinement to bed
- Smoking and pollutants
- Drugs and alcohol
- Medical conditions
- Dormitory or confinement
What is the treatment of viral pneumonia?
Who should have the pneumonia vaccine?
- Adults and children over the age of 2 years of age
- Individuals at high risk of morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal infections, patients with a chronic disease.
How do they test for tuberculosis?
They test using a Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) injected under the skin. If it reads positive, they do a chest x-ray, if that comes back positive they do a sputum culture.
What is the treatment for TB?
A four drug initial regimen of INH, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol (or streptomycin)
What are the side effects of Isoniazid (INH)
Peripheral neuritis - can be prevented by addition of pyridoxine
What are the warnings and dosage forms of Rifampin?
- There have been fatalities associated with jaundice in patients with liver disease, hepatotoxic
- Capsules and power for injection.
What are the warnings of Streptomycin Aminoglcoside?
- Use with caution in patients with renal impairment.
- Use with caution in patients taking other nephrotoxic drugs.